List of All Countries in Africa


Africa is the 3rd largest continent by area, with 30 million km2, occupying 20.3% of the total land area of the Earth. Despite concentrating countless natural wealth, the African continent is one of the poorest in the world.  Africa is bathed by the Atlantic Ocean on its western coast and the Indian Ocean on its eastern side, to the north, by the Mediterranean and Red Seas and to the south, by the Antarctic Sea.

The African continent has 54 nations and a population of 1.2 billion, accounting for 16% of the world’s population. The residents in Africa are mainly black. As the third largest continent on the earth, Africa has an area of about 50.2 million square kilometers. Currently, there are over 800 languages spoken in Africa. Among them, the top ten are Amharic, Arabic, French, Hausa, Igbo, Oromo, Shona, Swahili, Yoruba, and Zulu. Most Africans believe in Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.

Map of African Countries

Surrounded by the East Indian and West Atlantic Oceans, Africa means “place where the sun is hot” in Latin. See below for map of Africa and all state flags.

Map of African Countries

Although most countries are undeveloped, Africa is one of the best travel destinations in the world. Top spots include The Maasai Mara National Reserve (Kenya), Victoria Falls (Zambia), Pyramids of Giza (Egypt), Cape Town (South Africa) and Marrakech (Morocco).

Alphabetical List of African Countries

As of 2019, there are a total of 54 countries in Africa. Among all African countries, Nigeria is the largest one by population and Seychelles is the smallest. See the following for full list of African countries and dependencies in alphabetical order:

# Country Official Name Region
1 Algeria People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria Northern Africa
2 Angola Republic of Angola Central Africa
3 Benin Republic of Benin Western Africa
4 Botswana Republic of Botswana Southern Africa
5 Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Western Africa
6 Burundi Republic of Burundi Eastern Africa
7 Cameroon Republic of Cameroon Central Africa
8 Cabo Verde (formerly Cape Verde) Republic of Cabo Verde Western Africa
9 Central African Republic Central African Republic Central Africa
10 Chad Republic of Chad Central Africa
11 Comoros Union of the Comoros Eastern Africa
12 Côte d’Ivoire Republic of Côte d’Ivoire Western Africa
13 Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Central Africa
14 Djibouti Republic of Djibouti Eastern Africa
15 Egypt Arab Republic of Egypt Northern Africa
16 Equatorial Guinea Republic of Equatorial Guinea Central Africa
17 Eritrea State of Eritrea Eastern Africa
18 Eswatini (formerly Swaziland) Kingdom of Eswatini Southern Africa
19 Ethiopia Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Eastern Africa
20 Gabon Gabonese Republic Central Africa
21 Gambia Republic of the Gambia Western Africa
22 Ghana Republic of Ghana Western Africa
23 Guinea Republic of Guinea Western Africa
24 Guinea-Bissau Republic of Guinea-Bissau Western Africa
25 Kenya Republic of Kenya Eastern Africa
26 Lesotho Kingdom of Lesotho Southern Africa
27 Liberia Republic of Liberia Western Africa
28 Libya State of Libya Northern Africa
29 Madagascar Republic of Madagascar Eastern Africa
30 Malawi Republic of Malawi Eastern Africa
31 Mali Republic of Mali Western Africa
32 Mauritania Islamic Republic of Mauritania Western Africa
33 Mauritius Republic of Mauritius Eastern Africa
34 Morocco Kingdom of Morocco Northern Africa
35 Mozambique Republic of Mozambique Eastern Africa
36 Namibia Republic of Namibia Southern Africa
37 Niger Republic of the Niger Western Africa
38 Nigeria Federal Republic of Nigeria Western Africa
39 Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Central Africa
40 Rwanda Republic of Rwanda Eastern Africa
41 Sao Tome and Principe Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe Central Africa
42 Senegal Republic of Senegal Western Africa
43 Seychelles Republic of Seychelles Eastern Africa
44 Sierra Leone Republic of Sierra Leone Western Africa
45 Somalia Federal Republic of Somalia Eastern Africa
46 South Africa Republic of South Africa Southern Africa
47 South Sudan Republic of South Sudan Eastern Africa
48 Sudan Republic of the Sudan Northern Africa
49 Tanzania United Republic of Tanzania Eastern Africa
50 Togo Togolese Republic Western Africa
51 Tunisia Republic of Tunisia Northern Africa
52 Uganda Republic of Uganda Eastern Africa
53 Zambia Republic of Zambia Eastern Africa
54 Zimbabwe Republic of Zimbabwe Eastern Africa

Dependencies in Africa

Besides 54 independent nations, there are also two dependencies in Africa.

  1. Réunion (France)
  2. Saint Helena (U.K.)

Countries in Africa by Population

Africa is the second most populous continent on the planet, with 1.2 billion people. The population density is about 30 inhabitants per square kilometer, because much of the continent is adverse to human occupation. The Nile Valley has a population density of 500 inhabitants/km2, while deserts and forests are virtually uninhabited. Few African countries have a numerically larger urban population than the Algeria, Libya and Tunisia.

The largest portion of the African population is made up of different black peoples, the most important of which are Bantu, Nilotic, Pygmy, Bushmen. A significant amount of whites live mainly in the northern portion of the continent.

The 10 Most Populated Countries In Africa

With population of 200.9 million, Nigeria is the most populated country in Africa, followed by Egypt (98.8 million), Ethiopia (98.7 million), Democratic Republic of the Congo (86.8 million), South Africa (57.8 million), Tanzania (55.9 million), Kenya (5236 million), Algeria (43.4 million), Sudan (41.6 million), and Uganda (40 million).

Ranking of All African Countries by Population

Among 54 African countries, the most populous country is Nigeria and the least populous one is Seychelles. The full list of countries in Africa is shown in the table below, ranked by latest total population.

Rank Country Name Population % of African Population
1 Nigeria 200,963,599 15.79%
2 Egypt 98,839,800 7.77%
3 Ethiopia 98,665,000 7.75%
4 Democratic Republic of the Congo 86,790,567 6.82%
5 South Africa 57,725,600 4.54%
6 Tanzania 55,890,747 4.39%
7 Kenya 52,573,973 4.13%
8 Algeria 43,378,027 3.41%
9 Sudan 41,617,956 3.27%
10 Uganda 40,006,700 3.14%
11 Morocco 35,053,200 2.75%
12 Ghana 30,280,811 2.38%
13 Angola 30,175,553 2.37%
14 Mozambique 27,909,798 2.19%
15 Côte d’Ivoire 25,823,071 2.03%
16 Madagascar 25,263,000 1.99%
17 Cameroon 24,348,251 1.91%
18 Niger 22,314,743 1.75%
19 Burkina Faso 20,870,060 1.64%
20 Mali 19,973,000 1.57%
21 Malawi 17,563,749 1.38%
22 Zambia 17,381,168 1.37%
23 Senegal 16,209,125 1.27%
24 Chad 15,692,969 1.23%
25 Somalia 15,442,905 1.21%
26 Zimbabwe 15,159,624 1.19%
27 South Sudan 12,778,250 1.00%
28 Rwanda 12,374,397 0.97%
29 Guinea 12,218,357 0.96%
30 Benin 11,733,059 0.92%
31 Tunisia 11,551,448 0.91%
32 Burundi 10,953,317 0.86%
33 Sierra Leone 7,901,454 0.62%
34 Togo 7,538,000 0.59%
35 Libya 6,777,452 0.53%
36 Central African Republic 5,496,011 0.43%
37 Republic of the Congo 5,380,508 0.42%
38 Liberia 4,475,353 0.35%
39 Mauritania 4,077,347 0.32%
40 Eritrea 3,497,117 0.27%
41 Namibia 2,458,936 0.19%
42 Gambia 2,347,706 0.18%
43 Botswana 2,338,851 0.18%
44 Gabon 2,172,579 0.17%
45 Lesotho 2,007,201 0.16%
46 Guinea-Bissau 1,604,528 0.13%
47 Eswatini (Swaziland) 1,367,254 0.11%
48 Equatorial Guinea 1,358,276 0.11%
49 Mauritius 1,265,577 0.10%
50 Djibouti 1,078,373 0.08%
51 Comoros 873,724 0.07%
52 Cabo Verde (Cape Verde) 550,483 0.04%
53 Sao Tome and Principe 201,784 0.02%
54 Seychelles 96,762 0.01%

Territories in Africa by Population

In addition to independent countries, there are also 4 dependent territories in Africa. See table below for their latest total population and dependencies.

Rank Dependent Territory Population Territory of
1 Réunion 876,562 France
2 Western Sahara 552,628 NA
3 Mayotte 253,045 France
4 Saint Helena 4,049 U.K.

Countries in Africa by Area

Geographically, Africa is divided into three parts: North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Islands.

  • Islands (Canary Islands, Sao Tome and Principe, Cape Verde, Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, Seychelles and Reunion);
  • North Africa with 7 countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Southern Sudan, Tunisia);
  • Sub-Saharan Africa: The so-called sub-Saharan Africa is made up of 47 countries.

The 10 Largest Countries in Africa

With land area of 2,381,741 km², Algeria is the biggest country in Africa, followed by Democratic Republic of the Congo (2,267,048 km²), Sudan (1,861,484 km²), Libya (1,759,540 km²), Niger (1,266,700 km²), Chad (1,259,200 km²), Angola (1,246,700 km²), Mali (1,220,190 km²), South Africa (1,214,470 km²), and Mauritania (1,025,520 km²).

Rankings of All African Countries by Area

Among 54 countries in Africa, Algeria is the largest in territorial extension with 2,381,741 km2. By contrast, the Seychelles Islands are the smallest country on the continent with 455 km2. The full list of African countries in is shown in the table below, ranked by size of land area.

Rank Country Name Land Area (km²) % of African Area
1 Algeria 2,381,741 8.076%
2 Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,267,048 7.687%
3 Sudan 1,861,484 6.312%
4 Libya 1,759,540 5.966%
5 Niger 1,266,700 4.295%
6 Chad 1,259,200 4.270%
7 Angola 1,246,700 4.227%
8 Mali 1,220,190 4.137%
9 South Africa 1,214,470 4.118%
10 Mauritania 1,025,520 3.477%
11 Ethiopia 1,000,000 3.391%
12 Egypt 995,450 3.375%
13 Nigeria 910,768 3.088%
14 Tanzania 885,800 3.003%
15 Namibia 823,290 2.792%
16 Mozambique 786,380 2.666%
17 Zambia 743,398 2.521%
18 South Sudan 644,329 2.185%
19 Somalia 627,337 2.127%
20 Central African Republic 622,984 2.112%
21 Madagascar 581,540 1.972%
22 Kenya 569,140 1.930%
23 Botswana 566,730 1.922%
24 Cameroon 472,710 1.603%
25 Morocco 446,300 1.513%
26 Zimbabwe 386,847 1.312%
27 Republic of the Congo 341,500 1.158%
28 Côte d’Ivoire 318,003 1.078%
29 Burkina Faso 273,602 0.928%
30 Gabon 257,667 0.874%
31 Guinea 245,717 0.833%
32 Ghana 227,533 0.771%
33 Uganda 197,100 0.668%
34 Senegal 192,530 0.653%
35 Tunisia 155,360 0.527%
36 Benin 114,305 0.388%
37 Eritrea 101,000 0.342%
38 Liberia 96,320 0.327%
39 Malawi 94,080 0.319%
40 Sierra Leone 71,620 0.243%
41 Togo 54,385 0.184%
42 Lesotho 30,355 0.103%
43 Guinea-Bissau 28,120 0.095%
44 Equatorial Guinea 28,051 0.095%
45 Burundi 25,680 0.087%
46 Rwanda 24,668 0.084%
47 Djibouti 23,180 0.079%
48 Gambia 10,000 0.034%
49 Eswatini (Swaziland) 6704 0.023%
50 Cabo Verde (Cape Verde) 4,033 0.014%
51 Mauritius 2,030 0.007%
52 Comoros 1,862 0.006%
53 Sao Tome and Principe 964 0.003%
54 Seychelles 455 0.002%

African Geology

The African geological base is very old, which explains the small altitudes. However, we have in East Africa a succession of mountains, such as the Kilimanjaro and the Atlas Mountain Range.

Africa occupies a single tectonic plate, unlike Europe which shares its plate with Asia (Eurasian plate).

In addition, it is mostly made up of plateaus and coastal plains, which can be immensely large, such as the plains of Niger.

Northern Plateau

On the northern plateau is the Sahara Desert, the longest in the world with 9.2 million km 2 and the Atlas Mountains, a mountain range that reaches 4000 meters high.

Through this area flows the 6755 km Nile River, the longest in Africa and the second in the world. The Nile was the cradle of the earliest civilizations in history, such as the Egyptian.

South of the Sahara we have the Chad Basin, with 2,382,000 km 2 which is a source of fishing for the local population. There is also the Niger River, which is 4180 kilometers long.

Eastern Plateau

In the eastern part of the continent is the Rift Valley, the largest tectonic pit in the world, which forms a 4000 km long, narrow and deep valley. There were traces of the first human groups.

In the same way is the region of the great lakes and the highest points of the continent, where stands the 5895 meters Kilimanjaro.

Southern Plateau

In the southern part of the continent we find the deserts of Namibia and Kalahari, called “brothers” because they are very close.

The southernmost point on the continent is the Cape of Good Hope and is surrounded by the Drakensberg Mountains.

The Congo Basin, situated in the equatorial zone of the continent, is a huge forest, the 2nd in the world, just behind the Amazon.

Religions

From the religious point of view, Islam, Christianity and traditional African religions predominate.

We can generally share that in North Africa the predominant religion is Islam and in sub-Saharan Africa Christianity is the majority. In Ethiopia, for example, are the oldest Christian churches on the continent.

Protestant Christianity is also present due to English, German and Dutch colonization.

African animist religions continue to be practiced by tribes and even those who migrate to the city.

Languages

Across the continent, 2,000 languages ​​are spoken and countless dialects. In addition to the various languages ​​of African origin, some of the languages ​​introduced by the colonizers are still used today: Arabic, English, French, Portuguese and Spanish.

In certain countries, such as the Seychelles, the language of the colonizer, French, has been so mixed with the local language that it is already considered another language: Creole.

For this reason it is easy to find Africans who are true polyglots.

African History and Colonization

The beginnings of his colonization date from the Quaternary era or the end of the tertiary era, and it is possible that man has his origins on this continent.

North Africa is the oldest region in the world occupied by humans. The hominid fossils found there in Tanzania and Kenya are about five million years old.

The name “Africa” ​​is generally related to the Phoenicians as “afar” which means ” dust ” and

In Egypt there was the first state to be formed in Africa, about 5000 years old. Subsequently, with the aim of finding new ways for the Indies, Europeans will launch themselves on the African continent.

There were also great African civilizations on the continent, such as Askum (13th century) in Ethiopia, and Ghana (5th to 11th century).

There were powerful Muslim states such as those of Mali (13th to 15th century), Songhai (15th to 16th century), the Abomey kingdom of Benin (17th century). Finally, the South African Zulu Confederation (19th century).

European colonization

In the fifteenth century, explorers from Europe conquer the coast of West Africa and from the nineteenth century, the European powers will colonize the interior.

Portugal will dominate Angola, Mozambique, Guinea and strategic islands such as Sao Tome and Principe. Equally, Portugal and other countries will remove from Africa about eleven million people and enslave them in their colonies.

Already in the nineteenth century, the Berlin Conference will literally formalize the imperialist advance on the European continent.

The UK will occupy a strip from north to south, from Egypt to South Africa, as well as other areas it colonized in the Gulf of Guinea. France will be based in northwest Africa, the African equator and Madagascar.

Finally, outnumbered are Germany, which is established in Togo, Tanganyika and Cameroon; and Belgium, the Belgian Congo and Rwanda.

Italy, Libya, Ethiopia and Somalia; and Spain, will occupy part of Morocco, the current Western Sahara and enclaves in Guinea.

However, the African colonies announced their independence, especially after World War II, in a process that would be concluded between 1960 and 1975.

After independence, there were separatist uprisings and coups d’état, culminating in truculent dictatorships.

Thus, in most cases, political independence was only a prerogative at the moment, as, as a rule, the new countries maintained economic ties with their former metropolises.

Economy

Africa is the world’s poorest continent: of the thirty poorest countries, at least 21 are Africans.

Extractivism and agriculture are the main activities in Africa. These are practiced at very low technological levels and are therefore very harmful to the environment.

Hunting, fishing and gathering natural products still make up the main sources of income for the majority of the African population. The trade in leather and fur, ivory, woods, resins, palm oil and spices should be highlighted.

However, in the 21st century, due to the rising price of primary products, the African economy has experienced a considerable increase. The region’s growth rates reached up to 9% in the period 2004-2015.

Extractivism

Africa has large mineral reserves, most notably gold and diamonds, as well as energy sources such as oil and natural gas. It is also abundant in antimony, phosphates, manganese, cobalt and copper.

South Africa’s largest economy is South Africa, followed by countries such as Morocco and Tunisia (major phosphate exporters, raw material for the fertilizer industry).

Also of note is Algeria, rich in oil and natural gas, and a member of OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries).

However, the exploitation of mineral wealth is practiced by European or North American companies, which are attracted by the low price of labor, electricity and raw materials.

These companies extract and produce at reduced costs, allowing them high profit margins.

Agriculture

Africa’s agriculture comes in two forms: subsistence and commercial.

The first is rudimentary, itinerant and extensive, and the second, practiced under the old form of Plantation, introduced by Europeans during the colonial period.

The main products of export agriculture are tropical fruits such as bananas, cashews, coffee and flowers.

Livestock

Due to the unsuitable natural conditions for cattle breeding, Africa has an internal economic activity in cattle raising.

Fauna and Flora

The African fauna is very rich and has the largest animals on earth and in the savannas and steppes, populate the antelopes, zebras, giraffes, lions, leopards, elephants.

In the equatorial forest we can find a wide variety of birds and monkeys.

Thanks to precipitation, the predominant vegetation is the equatorial forest. To the north and south of this range, a region of hot and humid summers, come the savannas, which make up the most abundant vegetation on the continent.

In the Mediterranean Sea and South Africa, the Mediterranean vegetation with shrubs and grasses stands out .

Climate

The Sahel is one of the areas where temperatures are milder, with less rainfall and more pronounced dry seasons.

The climatic conditions include: equatorial, tropical, desert and Mediterranean.

The equatorial climate, hot and humid all year round, is in the midwest region of the continent. 75% of the continent is in the tropics. Only the north and south of the continent have a temperate climate.

The warm tropical climate with dry winters dominates the African continent as a whole and the Mediterranean climate emerges in small stretches of the northern tip and the southernmost tip of the continent.

Deserts occupy the rest of the territory, as rainfall is rare near the Tropic of Cancer, which is home to the Sahara Desert, and Kalahari, found in the Tropic of Capricorn.

Curiosities

  • The Nile River can be seen from space.
  • Hunger strikes thirty African countries with extreme force, especially those in the contiguous areas of the Sahara
  • Africa’s current political division took shape in the 1960s and 1970s, forming 54 independent countries.
  • Africa is the only continent in the world cut by three parallels: the Equator Line, as well as the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.

You may also like...