List of All Countries in Middle East

The Middle East is a region of the globe that spans some countries in Asia and one in Africa. It has a population of about 270 million people, most of whom are Arabs. This region encompasses some capital cities and major cities such as Cairo (Egypt), Istanbul (Turkey), Ankara (Turkey), Tehran (Iran), Baghdad (Iraq), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) and Dubai (United Arab Emirates). There, various ancient populations developed, such as the Mesopotamians and the Egyptians. Its history has since been filled with alliances and conflicts that generated this region. Note that part of Turkey is located in Europe, being the only Middle Eastern country on this continent.

The region comprising the Middle East is located in the western portion of the Asian continent, known as Western Asia. It has a territorial extension of more than 6.8 million square kilometers, with an estimated population of 260 million. There are 16 countries in Middle East (listed in alphabetical order): Afghanistan, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Syria, Turkey.

Map of Countries in Middle East

Map of Middle East Countries

Location of Middle East

Alphabetical List of Middle East Countries

As of 2019, there are a total of sixteen countries in Middle East. See the following table for full list of Middle East countries:

# Country Official Name Independence Date
1 Bahrain Kingdom of Bahrain December 16, 1971
2 Cyprus Republic of Cyprus October 1, 1960
3 Egypt Arab Republic of Egypt January 1, 1956
4 Iran Islamic Republic of Iran April 1, 1979
5 Iraq Republic of Iraq October 3, 1932
6 Israel State of Israel 1948
7 Jordan Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan May 25, 1946
8 Kuwait State of Kuwait February 25, 1961
9 Lebanon Lebanese Republic November 22, 1943
10 Oman Sultanate of Oman November 18, 1650
11 Qatar State of Qatar December 18, 1971
12 Saudi Arabia Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
13 Syria Syrian Arab Republic April 17, 1946
14 Turkey Republic of Turkey
15 United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates December 2, 1971
16 Yemen Republic of Yemen November 30, 1967

Middle East Profiles


The predominant climates in the Middle East are semiarid and desert. Both are marked by high temperatures and low rainfall. Thus, it is a very dry region where the relative humidity is low. Two important deserts are located in the region: the Arabian Desert (on the Arabian Peninsula) and the Sahara Desert (in Egypt). In regions where the semi-arid climate is predominant, rainfall is usually slightly higher.


Given the hostile climate, the vegetation in the region is sparse. It is marked by deep rooted plants, some trees, grasses and cacti. These plants have developed ways to survive in this type of environment, retaining water most of the time. Where the semi-arid climate prevails, more vegetation is found at the prairie and steppe sites. On the coast, the vegetation is even more abundant, with the presence of shrubs and trees. This is because the humidity, being near the sea, is higher, which favors the development of more plants.


One of the factors of development of this climate and vegetation present in the Middle East is due to the small number of rivers that cross the region. The main ones are the Tiger and the Euphrates, located in the region known as the Fertile Crescent. In addition to them, the Jordan River and the Nile River are worth mentioning. Having made this observation, it should be noted that water in the region is scarce, which may lead to the development of more conflicts involving this natural resource.


The Middle East has a very strong religious culture. This is because it was there that various religions developed from Christianity, Judaism and Islam. Therefore, the place houses various temples and religious sites such as Mecca and Jerusalem. It is a very diverse region with several ethnicities, the most notable being the Arab. This makes the place a broad cultural complex.


The Middle East region is an important economic center of the world. One of the biggest reasons is the existing oil reserves as well as gems. Saudi Arabia and Iran are the two countries with the largest oil reserves in the world. In addition to these are also oil exporters Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. Approximately 60% of the world reserves of this ore are located here. Although the data show that these reserves generate a lot of profits, much of the population living in the Middle East is poor. That is, this explains that there is a poor distribution of income in the region.

Another sector that has development in the region is the agricultural sector. Animal husbandry and some crops (sugar cane, rice, wheat, etc.) are developed in areas where the soil is most fertile. Finally, tourism is also an activity that drives the economy of these countries, especially Turkey, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Israel.

The city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia has a very expressive Muslim religious tourism every year. In this sense, Jerusalem also stands out as one of the oldest cities in the world and considered sacred to Christians, Jews and Islamists.

Major Conflicts in Middle East

For centuries many conflicts have developed in this region, where there is contact between three continents. We can say that this is one of the most conflicting places in the world. It is noteworthy that most of them are related to religion, or rather to religious intolerance. We should also stress that much of the conflict involves the conquest of territories by the countries that make up the Middle East themselves.

In addition, the climatic conditions in the region make it dependent on exports of water and other products. One of the most notable is the conflict between Arabs and Jews that was intensified in modernity after the first world war. However, it was only after World War II that the UN decided to create a state for each of them. Given this proposal, Palestine was divided into two parts, one Jewish and one Arab.

As the Jews had a larger portion of the territory (about 57%), the Palestinians (Arabs) were unhappy with the sharing. Shortly thereafter, in 1948, the Jews created the State of Israel and the Arabs declared war. However, the Palestinians were defeated and as a result, the Jewish territory grew even more, by about 20%. Undoubtedly, this has still been one of the biggest reasons for the lasting conflicts over territory conquest in the region. Noteworthy is the Gaza Strip, a site disputed between Palestinians and Israelis.

Another conflict that deserves attention is between Sunnis and Shiites. Both are Muslims and have political and religious differences. This has led to increased tension in several Middle Eastern countries, notably Iran and Saudi Arabia. In addition, the site continues to be the target of various wars such as the Iraq War, the Syria War, the Gulf War, the Six Day War, etc. Roughly speaking, they were developed by a variety of political interests (including Russia and the United States) and by economic interests as the region has high economic potential.


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