Saudi Arabia Facts

Saudi Arabia, State of the Arabian Peninsula, Southwest Asia; 2.2 million km2, 33.7 million residents (2019).Saudi Arabia occupies about 3/4 of the Arabian peninsula. The country borders in the north to Jordan, Iraq and Kuwait, in the east to Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, in the east and southeast to Oman and in the south to Yemen and to the coast of the Persian Gulf in the east and the Red Sea in the west. However, not all boundaries are definitely set. The capital is Riyadh (4.9 million residents, 2010).

Saudi Arabia Country Flag

Country facts

  • al-Mamlaka al-rabArabiyya as-Sa˙ūdiyya / Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • Country abbreviation: SA
  • Area: 2.2 million km2
  • Population (2019): 33.7 million residents
  • Capital: Riyadh
  • Main languages: Arabic
  • State: Monarchy
  • Head of State and Head of Government: Salman bin Abdul Aziz al-Saud (King)
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 23,219
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 21,540
  • Currency unit: 1 riyal = 20 qirsh = 100 halala
  • Currency code: SAR
  • Country number (telephony): 966
  • Internet Domain Name: Sa
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: +2
  • National Day: September 23 (United Kingdom, 1932)


  • Land use: forest (1%), agricultural land (2%), other (97%)
  • Highest mountain: Sawda (2,995 m above sea level)


  • Population density (2019): 15 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): 1.3%; birth number 16 ‰, death number 3 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (25%), 15-64 (72%), 65- (3%)
  • Average life expectancy (2019): men 74 years, women 77 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 13 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 48 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.853 (place 39 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 84%
  • Most populous cities (2010): Riyadh (4.9 million residents), Jeddah (3.2 million), Mecca (1.5 million)


  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (3%), industry (44%), service (53%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 221 100 million
  • Main export product: crude oil, oil products
  • Main exporting countries: Japan, China, South Korea
  • Imports (2017): US $ 119,300 million
  • Main import products: machinery, food, chemicals
  • Main Importing Countries: China, USA, United Arab Emirates
  • Railway network (2016): 5,400 km

Saudi Arabia is largely made up of desert areas and steppe landscapes. The coastal areas along the Persian Gulf are low and have deep bays, large salt plains and rich oil deposits. The location at the high-pressure belt around the northern tropic and in the rain shadow for winds from the sea gives a dry climate.

Saudi Arabia is ruled by the Royal Family and its Council of Ministers. There are no political parties or any elected assembly. Before making important decisions, however, the religious leaders are consulted. However, in recent years the advisory council, appointed by the king, has been given an increased role in the legislative work.

The country is the world’s largest economy. It is the world’s largest oil producer and has a quarter of the world’s known oil reserves, an economic strength that has hampered the development of other sectors and created an extremely large dependence on oil exports. In recent years, the country has sought to reduce this dependence by supporting the expansion and privatization of the economy.

Saudi Arabia Map

Saudi Arabia Map

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