Saudi Arabia Overview

Country Profile

Saudi Arabia, also known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is on the Arabian Peninsula. “Saudi Arabia” means “happiness” in Arabic. Covering an area of 2.25 million square kilometers, its population is 22.67 million, mostly Arabs. Islam is the state religion. Arabic is the official language, and English is also spoken. The currency is the rial. Riyadh (Ar-Riyad) is the capital.

Saudi Arabia National Flag

The flag of Saudi Arabia is green. At the top, in the center, are the Arabic words, “all non-owners, only Allah, Muhammad is Allah’s messenger.” Painted underneath is the master sword, a symbol of jihad and self-defense.

Saudi Arabia Country Flag

History Summary

In the 7th century, Islam’s founder, Mohammed, established a number of successors to Bodi Guo, which, in its eighth-century heyday, included territory across three continents, Europe, Asia, and Africa. In the 11th century, Arabia began to decline, and by the 16th century, the region became a province of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. In the 19th century, the British State invaded. In 1924, Sheikh Ibn Chi took over and merged Saudi with Hejaz, and claimed himself King the following year. After 50 years of expeditions, Ibn – Saudi Arabia finally unified the Arabian Peninsula. On September 25, 1952,the establishment of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was announced.


Saudi terrain gets higher from west to east. The western side is the Asir Plateau, with the central part a plateau, the eastern part plains, and the western part of the country is low-lying along the Red Sea coast. Desert makes up 50% of the total land area, and the largest desert is the desert southeast of the Rub al Khali. There is no perennial water of rivers or lakes; it is dry valley all over.

In the summer, the coastal areas’ air temperature ranges from 38 ℃ to 59 ℃, with the mainland sometimes as high as 54 ℃. It is one of the world’s hottest areas, and with an annual average rainfall of less than 200 mm, it is known as “the sun country.”

Economy and Culture Overview

For Saudi Arabia, the “oil empire,” known oil reserves and export volume rank first in the world, with its reserves accounting for 26% of the world’s total reserves, and exploitation is ranked first in the world. Of the three super-large oil fields in the world, there are two in Saudi Arabia, namely the and Safaniya Ghawar oil fields. The Saudi oil industry is the main pillar of the country’s economy; oil revenues accounted for 70% of state revenues. Natural gas accounts for 3.9% of total world reserves, fifth in the world. With only ground-based water resources, Saudi Arabia has a total of 25 desalination plants and is the world’s largest producer of desalinated seawater. Desalinated water accounts for 46% of the country’s drinking water.

Muslims act in strict accordance with Sharia law, banning alcohol, movies, and idolatry. When women go out in public, they must wear a black veil from head to toe. Collective worship occurs every Friday; the devout have to bow towards the direction of Mecca.

According to Islamic teachings, all healthy, able Muslims must make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca during their lifetime (believers pay respects to the Holy Land). Each year during the Kun season, about two million Muslims from around the world gather here, and a huge crowd slowly rotate around the Kaaba, a magnificent scene.

Saudi Arabia is a high-welfare state. People are very rich, but dress simply. The men wear white robes and white turbans, with black loops hold him down; many people also like wearing a red checked turban. Those who identify as Waichuan again wear a white robe trimmed in black or yellow yarn.

Mount Arafat

Part of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Mount Arafat is located 40 kilometers east of the Islamic holy city of Mecca. On Mount Arafat, worshippers collectively participate in the ceremony of the pilgrimage. A remote places nomrally, during the Hajj, pilgrims arrive on the evening of December 8th from Mecca to spend the night here in a large tent. In Islam, this is called the “vigil.” Mount Arafat becomes a tent city of a million people that never sleeps. On December 9th, millions of pilgrims clad in white, unsewn garments, brave the heat of the tent all day chant chanting verses of the Koran and silently praying. At night, teams of pilgrims embark on the Mina, where they return Mount Arafat to its quiet desert state.

Grand Mosque in Mecca

Also known as the Sacred Mosque, it is the world’s most famous Islamic Holy Temple. Located in the city center of Mecca, the mosque covers an area of 160,000 square meters and can accommodate 300,000 Muslims worshipping. The 25 gates, seven 92-meter minarets, and 24 meters of the wall connecting the door and the minaret are carved. Slightly south of the central square is the Temple Kaaba (Kaaba means the house of God). In December each year, Muslim pilgrims from around the world come to Mecca to be in the room they day when the tour transfer.

Saudi Arabia Map

Saudi Arabia Map

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