Egypt Facts


Egypt, a state mainly located in northeastern Africa; also the Sinai Peninsula in southwestern Asia is within Egypt’s borders; 1 million km2, 98.4 million residents (2019).Culturally geographically, one usually divides Egypt into Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. Upper Egypt represents the Nile Valley to the south of Cairo, while Lower Egypt consists of the delta in the north. The capital is Cairo (9.3 million residents, 2019).

Egypt Country Flag

Country facts

  • Jumhūriyyat Miṣr al-rabArabīiyya / Arab Republic of Egypt
  • Country abbreviation: EC
  • Area: 1 million km2
  • Population (2019): 98.4 million residents
  • Capital: Cairo
  • Main languages: Arabic
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State: Abd al-Fattah al-Sisi (President)
  • Head of Government: Mostafa Madbouli
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 9,771
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 9,470
  • Currency unit: 1 Egyptian pound = 100 piaster
  • Country number (telephony): 20
  • Currency code: EGP
  • Internet domain name: dz
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: +1
  • National Day: July 23 (Revolution Day, 1952)
  • Independence Day: February 28, 1922

Nature

  • Land use: agricultural land (3%), other (mainly desert, 97%)
  • Highest mountain: Katarina (2,637 m above sea level)
  • Longest river: the Nile (6,670 km)

Population

  • Population density (2019): 98 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): 1.9%; birthrate 25 ‰, deathrate 6 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (34%), 15-64 (62%), 65- (4%)
  • Life expectancy (2019): men 71 years, women 74 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 15 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 158 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.696 (place 115 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 43%
  • Most populous cities (2019): Cairo (9.3 million residents), Alexandria (5.1 million), Giza (4.2 million)

Business

  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (12%), industry (34%), service (54%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 23,300 million
  • Main export product: crude oil, cotton, textiles
  • Main exporting countries: United Arab Emirates, Italy, USA
  • Imports (2017): US $ 59,800 million
  • Main import products: machinery, food, chemicals
  • Main Importing Countries: China, United Arab Emirates, Germany
  • Railway network (2014): 5,500 km

Egypt’s central region is made up of the valley of the Nile, while desert areas are spreading on either side. Only the easternmost strip along the Red Sea and an area in the southwest corner are highlands.

After the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak in 2011, work started on a new constitution. At the end of December 2012, the new constitution was voted on in a referendum. This prescribes a two-chamber system where the power lies with a representative house with at least 350 members, elected for five years. The president is elected for four years and may be re-elected once. Egypt became independent in 1922.

The Nile, with its water and its fertile beaches, has always been the lifeblood of the country. Rapid population growth means that Egypt has to import half of its food needs. Most of the country’s revenue comes from tourism, oil production, the Suez Canal and from Egyptians working abroad. The government’s tax base is weak; About half of all economic activity in the country is estimated to continue in the informal sector.

Egypt Map

Egypt Map

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