List of All Countries in Europe


As the world’s most densely populated continent, Europe is located in the northern hemisphere of the globe. It comprises a total area of ​​10,498,000 km 2 and has a population of 744.7 million. The Russian Federation is the largest country in Europe with 17,075,400 km2 , and the most populous nation with 143.5 million inhabitants. Next comes Germany with 357,120 km2 , with a population of 81.89 million.

Geographically, Europe is bordered to the north by the Arctic Glacial Ocean, to the east with the Ural Mountains, to the south with the Caspian and Black Seas and the Caucasus Mountains (natural boundaries between Europe and Asia), and with the Mediterranean Sea.

Map of European Countries

Alphabetical List of Countries in Europe

Europe is made up of 45 countries. There is great diversity between the sizes of each and we can find the small Vatican (0.44 km2 ), Monaco (0.44 km2 ), San Marino (61.2 km2 ), Liechtenstein (160 km2 ) and the Principality of Andorra (468 km2 ). Despite being between two continents, Asia and Europe, the largest countries in Europe are the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan and Turkey.

The island of Cyprus is part of Asia but politically belongs to Europe. The small island is occupied by Turkey and the United Kingdom, which still have military bases there. Part of the territory, the south, was admitted to the European Union in 2004. Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia, from a geographical point of view, are countries belonging to the Asian continent. They are located in the Caucasus region, considered transcontinental countries. Azerbaijan and Georgia border Russia (European part), the former being a member of the Council of Europe since 25 January 2001.

In summary, there are a total of 45 independent countries and 6 dependent territories in Europe. See the following for full list of European countries in alphabetical order:

# Country Name Official Name
1 Albania Republic of Albania
2 Andorra Principality of Andorra
3 Austria Republic of Austria
4 Belarus Republic of Belarus
5 Belgium Kingdom of Belgium
6 Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina
7 Bulgaria Republic of Bulgaria
8 Croatia Republic of Croatia
9 Czech Republic Czech Republic
10 Denmark Kingdom of Denmark
11 Estonia Republic of Estonia
12 Finland Republic of Finland
13 France French Republic
14 Germany Federal Republic of Germany
15 Greece Hellenic Republic
16 Holy See Holy See
17 Hungary Hungary
18 Iceland Republic of Iceland
19 Ireland Ireland
20 Italy Republic of Italy
21 Latvia Republic of Latvia
22 Liechtenstein Liechtenstein
23 Lithuania Republic of Lithuania
24 Luxembourg Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
25 Malta Republic of Malta
26 Moldova Republic of Moldova
27 Monaco Principality of Monaco
28 Montenegro Montenegro
29 Netherlands Kingdom of the Netherlands
30 North Macedonia Republic of North Macedonia
31 Norway Kingdom of Norway
32 Poland Republic of Poland
33 Portugal Portuguese Republic
34 Romania Romania
35 Russia Russian Federation
36 San Marino Republic of San Marino
37 Serbia Republic of Serbia
38 Slovakia Slovak Republic
39 Slovenia Republic of Slovenia
40 Spain Kingdom of Spain
41 Sweden Kingdom of Sweden
42 Switzerland Swiss Confederation
43 Turkey Republic of Turkey
44 Ukraine Ukraine
45 United Kingdom United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Transcontinental countries in Europe

  • Russia
  • Kazakhstan
  • Azerbaijan
  • Georgia
  • Turkey

European Union

The European Union (EU) is an economic and political bloc whose main objective is to maintain peace on the European continent through economic, social and cultural programs. Of all European countries, 28 countries participate in the European Union. Click European Union to see a full list of EU member countries.

Countries in Europe by Population

Currently, there are 45 independent countries in Europe. As mentioned above, the most populous is Russia and the least populated is Holy See. The full list of countries in Europe is shown in the table below, ranked by latest total population.

Rank Country Name Region Population Percentage
1 Russia Eastern Europe 146,793,733 17.76%
2 Germany Western Europe 82,979,089 10.04%
3 Turkey Southern Europe 82,003,871 9.92%
4 France Western Europe 66,997,989 8.11%
5 United Kingdom Northern Europe 66,040,218 7.99%
6 Italy Southern Europe 60,375,738 7.30%
7 Spain Southern Europe 46,733,027 5.65%
8 Ukraine Eastern Europe 42,079,536 5.09%
9 Poland Eastern Europe 38,412,989 4.65%
10 Romania Eastern Europe 19,523,610 2.36%
11 Netherlands Western Europe 17,325,689 2.10%
12 Belgium Western Europe 11,467,351 1.39%
13 Greece Southern Europe 10,741,154 1.30%
14 Czech Republic Eastern Europe 10,652,801 1.29%
15 Portugal Southern Europe 10,276,606 1.24%
16 Sweden Northern Europe 10,263,557 1.24%
17 Hungary Eastern Europe 9,763,989 1.18%
18 Belarus Eastern Europe 9,465,289 1.15%
19 Austria Western Europe 8,869,526 1.07%
20 Switzerland Western Europe 8,542,312 1.03%
21 Serbia Southern Europe 7,001,433 0.85%
22 Bulgaria Eastern Europe 7,000,028 0.85%
23 Denmark Northern Europe 5,811,402 0.70%
24 Finland Northern Europe 5,518,741 0.67%
25 Slovakia Eastern Europe 5,450,410 0.66%
26 Norway Northern Europe 5,334,751 0.65%
27 Ireland Northern Europe 4,856,989 0.59%
28 Croatia Southern Europe 4,130,293 0.50%
29 Moldova Eastern Europe 3,547,528 0.43%
30 Bosnia and Herzegovina Southern Europe 3,300,989 0.40%
31 Albania Southern Europe 2,862,416 0.35%
32 Lithuania Northern Europe 2,791,122 0.34%
33 Slovenia Southern Europe 2,080,897 0.25%
34 North Macedonia Southern Europe 2,075,290 0.25%
35 Latvia Northern Europe 1,915,089 0.23%
36 Estonia Northern Europe 1,324,809 0.16%
37 Montenegro Southern Europe 622,348 0.08%
38 Luxembourg Western Europe 613,883 0.07%
39 Malta Southern Europe 475,690 0.06%
40 Iceland Northern Europe 358,769 0.04%
41 Andorra Southern Europe 76,166 0.01%
42 Liechtenstein Western Europe 38,369 0.00%
43 Monaco Western Europe 38,289 0.00%
44 San Marino Southern Europe 33,411 0.00%
45 Holy See Southern Europe 788 0.00%

Territories in Europe by Population

In addition to independent countries, there are also dependent territories in Europe. See table below for a full list of all 6 European territories, with latest total population and dependencies.

Rank Dependent Territory Population Territory of
1 Jersey 105,500 U.K.
2 Isle of Man 83,314 U.K.
3 Guernsey 62,063 U.K.
4 Faroe Islands 51,705 Denmark
5 Gibraltar 33,701 U.K.
6 Åland Islands 29,489 Finland

European Countries by Area

Below is a list of all the European countries, in order of land area size. Russia is the biggest country while Nauru is the smallest one.

Rank Country Name Land Area (km²) Density
1 Russia 16,377,742 8.96
2 Turkey 769,632 106.55
3 France 640,427 104.61
4 Ukraine 579,300 72.64
5 Spain 498,980 93.66
6 Sweden 410,335 25.01
7 Germany 348,672 237.99
8 Poland 311,888 123.16
9 Norway 304,282 17.53
10 Finland 303,815 18.16
11 Italy 294,140 205.26
12 United Kingdom 241,930 272.97
13 Romania 231,291 84.41
14 Belarus 202,900 46.65
15 Greece 130,647 82.22
16 Bulgaria 108,489 64.52
17 Iceland 100,250 3.58
18 Portugal 91,470 112.35
19 Hungary 89,608 108.96
20 Serbia 88,246 79.34
21 Austria 82,445 107.58
22 Czech Republic 77,247 137.91
23 Ireland 68,883 70.51
24 Lithuania 62,680 44.53
25 Latvia 62,249 30.76
26 Croatia 55,974 73.79
27 Bosnia and Herzegovina 51,187 64.49
28 Slovakia 48,105 113.3
29 Denmark 42,434 136.95
30 Estonia 42,388 31.25
31 Switzerland 39,997 213.57
32 Netherlands 33,893 511.19
33 Moldova 32,891 107.86
34 Belgium 30,278 378.74
35 Albania 27,398 104.48
36 North Macedonia 25,433 81.6
37 Slovenia 20,151 103.27
38 Montenegro 13,452 46.26
39 Luxembourg 2,586 237.39
40 Andorra 468 162.75
41 Malta 316 1,505.35
42 Liechtenstein 160 239.81
43 San Marino 61 547.72
44 Monaco 2.02 18,954.95
45 Holy See 0.44 1,790.91

Map of Countries in Europe

European industry

Among the most industrialized countries are Germany, the United Kingdom and France. The continent stands out in the manufacture of automobiles, shoes, luxury industry (cosmetics and clothing). Despite this, the global crisis of 2008 raised the unemployment rate of the European continent. France is the world’s first nuclear power producer, from which it extracts 76% of its electricity needs, and sells some to Germany and Belgium.

European agriculture

The agriculture in some European countries, it is not sufficient to meet the population’s needs. In the United Kingdom agriculture occupies a small part of the territory. Agricultural labor use is the lowest in the world and food production meets only 40% of the population’s food needs, the rest is imported. Countries like Spain and Italy are major producers of meat, olive oil and fruits. Already France, stands out with wines and dairy products.

Services and Finance in Europe

The service sector is the strongest in Europe. To get an idea, of the twenty largest companies on this continent, 12 are from the financial sector such as the British bank HSBC or the German insurer Allianz. Tourism is also essential for maintaining balance of accounts. Portugal, for example, receives about 12.76 million visitors in 2018 and this activity already accounts for 13.7% of GDP of this country, according to data from the National Institute of Statistics.

European Climate and Vegetation

Europe’s climate and landscapes feature three major natural regions:

  • Northern Europe: domain of tundra (undergrowth, which can withstand very low temperatures), subpolar plains and mountains (polar climate). Mastery of the taiga and land where weeds and wild plants develop; less intense cold region to the west due to maritime influence (cold weather).
  • Plains oceanic and continental Europe: plains region, natural environment altered by human action and predominance of agriculture (temperate climate). Mountainous areas dominated by forests and many man-made stretches and some regions with semiarid climate.
  • Southern mountain Europe: cold mountain region of high mountains. Mediterranean region with mountains and places modified by human action and regions of Mediterranean plains and plateaus (Mediterranean climate).

European culture

European culture is diverse and is the sum of various peoples, religions and knowledge that have developed in this region. The first civilization that influenced the continent was the Greek. Despite being a handful of competing cities, the Greeks left their mark on politics, philosophy, medicine, astronomy, art, etc. They were later dominated by the Romans who copied many of their teachings and expanded their domains to the north in present-day England. The Romans carried their legal system and customs throughout the continent.

Similarly, with the advent of Christianity, European peoples began to develop painting, architecture, sculpture and music always related to the religious theme. Already in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the revaluation of Classical Antiquity, the realization that there are lands beyond the Ocean, change the Europeans’ understanding of themselves and the world. On this continent, too, are created the machines that allow the Industrial Revolution, liberalism and the struggle for egalitarianism. Art becomes a mosaic of artistic movements such as Impressionism, Cubism, Surrealism and many others that will be reinterpreted by artists from around the world.

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