Netherlands Facts

Netherlands, State of North-West Europe; 41,860 km2, 17.2 million residents (2019).The Netherlands is located on the North Sea and borders south to Belgium and east to Germany. Of the once extensive colonial empire of the Netherlands, only the Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles are located in the Caribbean with a total of about 300,000 residents (both have internal autonomy). The capital is Amsterdam (823,800 residents, 2015), but parliament and government have their seat in The Hague.

Netherlands Country Flag

Country facts

  • Kingdom of the Netherlands / Kingdom of the Netherlands
  • Country abbreviation: NL
  • Area: 41 860 km2
  • Population (2019): 17.2 million residents
  • Capital: Amsterdam
  • Main language: Dutch
  • State: Monarchy
  • Head of State: Willem-Alexander (Monarch)
  • Head of Government: Mark Rutte
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 53,024
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 51,260
  • Currency unit: euro
  • Currency code: EUR
  • Country number (telephony): 31
  • Internet domain name: nl
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: 0
  • National Day: April 27 (King William-Alexander’s Birthday)


  • Land use: forest (11%), agricultural land (57%), other (32%)
  • Highest mountain: Vaalserberg (322 meters above sea level)


  • Population density (2019): 411 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): 0.1%; birth rate 10 ‰, death rate 9 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (16%), 15-64 (65%), 65- (19%)
  • Life expectancy (2019): men 80 years, women 83 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 3 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 18 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.931 (place 10 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 92%
  • Most populous cities (2015): Amsterdam (823,800 residents), Rotterdam (625,300), The Hague (515,000)


  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (2%), industry (18%), service (80%)
  • Exports of goods (2017): US $ 555,600 million
  • Main export products: machinery, chemicals, fuel
  • Main exporting countries: Germany, Belgium, United Kingdom
  • Imports of goods (2017): US $ 453,800 million
  • Main import products: machinery, means of transport, chemicals
  • Main importing countries: China, Germany, Belgium
  • Railway network (2016): 3 100 km

Most of the Netherlands is a low lying plain. Only in the border area of ​​the Ardennes at the far south-east is the terrain higher and more pleasant. About half of the surface consists of bollards, ie. embroidered areas that were paved with the help of pumps and locks and now form fertile cultivation areas and land for development centers. The Netherlands has a warm, humid climate with mild winters and cool summers, mainly due to its proximity to the sea and lively low pressure activities.

The country is a constitutional monarchy, but the real power has been in the Parliament since the mid-1800s and the government responsible to Parliament. Parliament consists of two chambers. The first is elected indirectly by the elected provincial assemblies for four years, while the second chamber is elected in direct elections for four years.

The Netherlands is a small country with few natural resources but with an advantageous geographical location in the center of Western Europe, at the mouth of the Rhine. The country’s economy is therefore largely characterized by trade: fuel and raw materials are imported and finished goods in agriculture and industry are exported. The metal industry and the petrochemical industry as well as the high-tech agriculture with import of feed and production of quality products are examples of the country’s trading economy.

Netherlands Map

Netherlands Map

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