Georgia, State of Western Caucasus, Northwest Asia; 69,700 km2, 3.7 million residents (2019).Georgia borders Azerbaijan in the east, Armenia in the south, Turkey in the southwest and the Russian Federation in the north. In the west, Georgia has a coast to the Black Sea. The capital is Tbilisi (1.1 million residents, 2018).
- Sakartvelo / Georgia
- Country abbreviation: GE
- Area: 69 700 km2
- Population (2019): 3.7 million residents
- Capital: Tbilisi
- Main language: Georgian
- State: Republic
- Head of State: Salomé Zurabishvili (President)
- Head of Government: Giorgi Gakharia
- Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 4 345
- GNI per capita (2018): US $ 4 130
- Coin unit: 1 lari = 100 tetri
- Currency code: GEL
- Country number (telephony): 995
- Internet Domain Names: ge
- Time difference compared to Sweden: +3
- National Day: May 26 (Independence Day, 1918)
- Land use: forest (39%), agricultural land (14%), other (47%)
- Highest mountain: Sjchara (5,064 m asl)
- Population density (2019): 53 residents per km2
- Natural population growth (2019): 0.1%; birth rate 14 ‰, death rate 13 ‰
- Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (20%), 15-64 (65%), 65- (15%)
- Life expectancy (2019): men 70 years, women 78 years
- Infant mortality (2019): 8 per 1,000 live births
- Population forecast 2050: 4 million residents
- HDI (2017): 0.780 (place 70 of 189)
- Urbanization rate (2019): 58%
- Most populous cities (2018): Tbilisi (1.1 million residents), Batumi (163,400), Ktaisi (141,000)
- Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (8%), industry (24%), service (68%)
- Exports (2017): US $ 3,566 million
- Main export products: vehicles, metal products, fertilizers
- Main exporting countries: Russian Federation, Azerbaijan, Turkey
- Imports (2017): US $ 7,415 million
- Main import products: oil, vehicles, machinery
- Main importing countries: Turkey, Russian Federation, China
- Railway network (2014): 1,400 km
Georgia has predominantly mountainous terrain and high altitude contrasts at small distances. Lowlands are found along the Black Sea coast.
The country’s constitution was adopted in 1995, and it introduced a relatively strong presidential power and a single-chamber parliament with 150 delegates, elected for four years. The president is elected for five years.
During the Soviet period, Georgia had a well-developed business relationship with other Soviet republics. Since independence in 1991, the situation in the country has been aggravated by national strife, mainly in the autonomous regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, and strife within the South Caucasian region. This has resulted in major damage to the country’s infrastructure and the important oil imports from primarily Azerbaijan.
The agricultural sector, with cultivation of, among other things, fruit and tea, are of great importance, while the importance of the obsolete industry has diminished. During the 2010 century, the economic importance of the tourism industry has increased.