India Facts

India, Federal Republic of South Asia; 3.2 million km2, 1,353 million residents (2019).The country covers most of the Ancient India peninsula between the Himalayas in the north and the Indian Ocean’s two coastal Bengal and Arabian Gulf. India extends about 3,200 km from north to south and about 3,000 km from west to east. The capital is New Delhi (250,000 residents, 2011).

India Country Flag

Country facts

  • Bhārat (Hindi), Republic of India (English) / Republic of India
  • Country abbreviation: IN
  • Area: 3.2 million km2
  • Population (2019): 1,353 million residents
  • Capital: New Delhi
  • Main languages: Hindi, English
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State: Ram Nath Kovind (President)
  • Head of Government: Narendra Modi
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 2,016
  • GNI per capita (2018): USD 2,020
  • Currency unit: 1 rupee = 100 paise
  • Currency code: INR
  • Country number (telephony): 91
  • Internet domain name: in
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: +4.5
  • National Day: January 26 (Founding of the Republic, 1950)
  • Independence Day: August 15, 1947


  • Land use: forest (23%), agricultural land (57%), other (20%)
  • Highest mountain: Kanchenjunga (8,586 m above sea level)
  • Longest river: Ganges (2,506 km)


  • Population density (2019): 423 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): 1.4%; birthrate 20 ‰, deathrate 6 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (27%), 15-64 (67%), 65- (6%)
  • Average life expectancy (2019): men 67 years, women 70 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 33 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 1 670 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.640 (place 130 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 31%
  • Most populous cities (2011): Mumbai (Bombay) (12.5 million residents), Delhi (11.0 million), Bengaluru (8.4 million)


  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (15%), industry (23%), service (62%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 304 100 million
  • Main export products: oil products, gemstones, workshop products
  • Main exporting countries: United States, United Arab Emirates, China
  • Imports (2017): US $ 452,200 million
  • Main import products: oil, precious stones, machinery
  • Main Importing Countries: China, USA, United Arab Emirates
  • Railway network (2014): 68,500 km

In the north of India, the high mountain masses of the Himalayas rise, and in the far south, the Indian Plateau forms the triangular peninsula that is so dominant in the general image of India. The third region is the northern Indian plains, a water-rich and fertile part, although it also contains areas of desert and steppe nature. Most of the country has a tropical climate with a pronounced rainy season and dry season.

The country is a federal republic with a parliament consisting of a people-elected lower house and an upper house with representatives from the states. The terms of office are five and six years respectively. The president, whose role is predominantly ceremonial, is elected in indirect elections for five years. India became independent in 1947.

Characteristic of the country’s business is that while the country’s industry in some areas has made great progress, and India as an industry is one of the fifteen most productive in the world, there is also a great deal of poverty. In addition, the country also has a rapidly growing middle class whose consumption is driving the economy.

In the early 1990s, India began an intensive restructuring of the economy. The previously planned mixed economy was opened up more and more, and the government pursued a policy with more market economy elements. During the 2000s, the country has had one of the fastest growing economies in the world, primarily the industry and service industries driving development. India is now Asia’s third largest economy, after China and Japan.

India Map

India Map

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