Countries in Central America

Central America is the narrow and elongated part of America that forms the land link between South and North America. In a geographical sense, Central America encompasses the land area between the Atrato sink in northwestern Colombia and the Tehuantepecnäset in Mexico. According to this delineation, southeastern Mexico (approximately the states of Chiapas and Tabasco along with the entire Yucatán Peninsula) and a smaller area of ​​Colombia are located in Central America.

How Many Countries in Central America?

According to a political demarcation, however, Central America includes the seven independent countries. They are: Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. In economic regards, the term Central America is often used in the five states of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. These countries can be regarded as an economic-political entity with some justification, but the demarcation also has a historical background: Belize, formerly British Honduras, became independent in 1981, and Panama was a part of Colombia until 1903.

The countries of Central America feature tropical climate and people, largely mestizo. The population is predominantly Catholic and its economy is based on agriculture. Spanish and English are the predominant languages, but indigenous languages ​​are known to many people because of their ancestry.

Map of Countries in Central America

Map of Central American Countries

List of Central American Countries

As of 2020, there are a total of 7 countries in Central America. See the following for full list of Central American countries in alphabetical order:

# Flag Country Name Official Name Independence Date Population
1 Belize Flag Belize Belize September 21, 1981 397,639
2 Costa Rica Flag Costa Rica Republic of Costa Rica September 15, 1821 5,094,129
3 El Salvador Flag El Salvador Republic of El Salvador September 15, 1821 6,486,216
4 Guatemala Flag Guatemala Republic of Guatemala September 15, 1821 17,915,579
5 Honduras Flag Honduras Republic of Honduras September 15, 1821 9,904,618
6 Nicaragua Flag Nicaragua Republic of Nicaragua September 15, 1821 6,624,565
7 Panama Flag Panama Republic of Panama November 28, 1821 4,314,778

All Countries in Middle America and Their Capitals

Compared to Central America, Middle America is a more general term. Besides nations of Central America, Middle America also include Caribbean, Mexico (located in southern North America), as well as Colombia and Venezuela (located in northern South America). Check out the list of all countries in Middle America now:

Antigua and Barbuda

  • Capital: Saint John’s
  • Area: 440 km²
  • Language: English
  • Currency: East Caribbean Dollar


  • Capital: Nassau
  • Area: 13,880 km²
  • Language: English
  • Currency: Bahamian Dollar


  • Capital: Bridgetown
  • Area: 430 km²
  • Language: English
  • Currency: Barbados Dollar


  • Capital: Belmopan
  • Area: 22,970 km²
  • Language: English
  • Currency: Belize Dollar

Costa Rica

  • Capital: San José
  • Area: 51.100 km²
  • Language: Spanish
  • Currency: Costa Rican Colón


  • Capital: Havana
  • Area: 109.890 km²
  • Language: Spanish
  • Currency: Cuban Peso


  • Capital: Roseau
  • Area: 750 km²
  • Language: English
  • Currency: East Caribbean Dollar

El Salvador

  • Capital: San Salvador
  • Area: 21,040 km²
  • Language: Spanish
  • Currency: US Dollar and Colon


  • Capital: Saint George’s
  • Area: 340 km²
  • Language: English
  • Currency: East Caribbean Dollar


  • Capital: Guatemala City
  • Area: 108.890 km²
  • Language: Spanish
  • Currency: Quetzal


  • Capital: Port-au-Prince
  • Area: 27,750 km²
  • Language: French and Creole
  • Currency: Gourde


  • Capital: Tegucigalpa
  • Area: 112.490 km²
  • Language: Spanish
  • Currency: Lempira


  • Capital: Kingston
  • Area: 10,990 km²
  • Language: English
  • Currency: Jamaican Dollar


  • Capital: Managua
  • Area: 130.370 km²
  • Language: Spanish
  • Currency: Cordoba


  • Capital: Panama City
  • Area: 75,420 km²
  • Language: Spanish
  • Currency: Balboa

Dominican Republic

  • Capital: Santo Domingo
  • Area: 48.670 km²
  • Language: Spanish
  • Currency: Weight

Saint Lucia

  • Capital: Castries
  • Area: 620 km²
  • Language: English
  • Currency: East Caribbean Dollar

Saint Kitts and Nevis

  • Capital: Basseterre
  • Area: 260 km²
  • Language: English
  • Currency: East Caribbean Dollar

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

  • Capital: Kingstown
  • Area: 390 km²
  • Language: English
  • Currency: Jamaican Dollar

Trinidad and Tobago

  • Capital: Port of Spain
  • Area: 5,130 km²
  • Language: English
  • Currency: Trinidad and Tobago Dollar

MCCA Countries

The Central American Common Market (MCCA) emerged in 1960 with the aim of creating a common market for the region. From this bloc, it is intended to constitute the Central American Union, in the same way as the European Union. The following nations are founders and current members of the MCCA:


  • Government: Presidential Republic
  • Population: 6,080,000
  • GDP: $ 11.26 billion


  • Government: Presidential Republic
  • Population: 15,470,000
  • GDP: $ 53.8 billion

El Salvador

  • Government: Presidential Republic
  • Population: 6,340,000
  • GDP: $ 24.26 billion


  • Government: Presidential Republic
  • Population: 8,098,000
  • GDP: $ 18.55 billion

Costa Rica

  • Government: Presidential Republic
  • Population: 4,872,000
  • GDP: $ 49.62 billion

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