Ghana, State of West Africa; 238,500 km2, 29.8 million residents (2019).Ghana borders in the west to the Ivory Coast, in the north to Burkina Faso and in the east to Togo and has the south coast to the Atlantic. The capital is Accra (2.2 million residents, 2012).
- Republic of Ghana / Republic of Ghana
- Country abbreviation: GH
- Area: 238 500 km2
- Population (2019): 29.8 million residents
- Capital: Accra
- Main languages: English, moore
- State: Republic
- Head of State and Head of Government: Nana Akufo-Addo (President)
- Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 2,202
- GNI per capita (2018): US $ 2 130
- Currency unit: 1 cedi = 100 pesewas
- Currency code: GHS
- Country number (telephony): 233
- Internet Domain Name: gh
- Time difference compared to Sweden: −1
- National Day: March 6 (Independence Day, 1957)
- Land use: forest (38%), agricultural land (23%), other (39%)
- Highest mountain: Afadjato (885 m asl)
- Largest lake: Lake Volta (8 470 km2 )
- Population density (2019): 125 residents per km2
- Natural population growth (2019): 2.3%; birth number 30 ‰, death number 7 ‰
- Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (38%), 15-64 (59%), 65- (3%)
- Life expectancy (2019): men 62 years, women 65 years
- Infant mortality (2019): 37 per 1,000 live births
- Population forecast 2050: 52 million residents
- HDI (2017): 0.592 (place 140 of 189)
- Urbanization rate (2019): 56%
- Most populous cities (2012): Accra (2.3 million residents), Kumasi (2 million)
- Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (18%), industry (24%), service (58%)
- Exports (2017): US $ 13,840 million
- Main export products: oil, gold, cocoa,
- Main exporting countries: India, China, Switzerland
- Imports (2017): US $ 12,650 million
- Main import products: capital goods, oil, food
- Main importing countries: China, USA, UK
- Railway network (2014): 950 km
Ghana consists of a low lying area and is drained by the river Volta, which includes the artificial Lake Volta. The coastline alternates low sandy bays and mountainous headlands.
The country is a multi-party state where the executive power is held by a president who is elected by universal suffrage for a period of four years and can be re-elected once. The legislative power is exercised by a single-chamber parliament, elected by universal suffrage for a four-year term. The country became independent in 1957.
Agriculture is traditionally the dominant industry in Ghana. Previously, the country was the world’s largest cocoa producer, but that role has been taken over by Ivory Coast. In addition to cocoa, gold and timber are the most important export products.
The dependence on a few commodities has made the country sensitive to changes in world market prices. However, during the 2000s, the country’s economic development has stabilized, thanks in large part to an increase in production in the oil and mining industry.