Gabon Facts


Gabon, Republic of Western Central Africa; 268,000 km2, 2.1 million residents (2019).The country borders Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon in the north and Congo in the east and west and has a coast to the Atlantic in the west. The capital is Libreville (797,000 residents, 2012).

Gabon Country Flag

Country facts

  • Republic of Gabonaise / Republic of Gabon
  • Country abbreviation: GA
  • Area: 268 000 km2
  • Population (2019): 2.1 million residents
  • Capital: Libreville
  • Main languages: French, Bantu languages
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State: Ali Ben Bongo (President)
  • Head of Government: Julien Nkoghe Bekale
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 8,030
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 6,800
  • Currency unit: 1 CFA franc = 100 centimes
  • Currency code: XAF
  • Country number (telephony): 241
  • Internet Domain Name: ga
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: 0
  • National Day: March 12 (formation of Parti démocratique gabonais, 1968)
  • Independence Day: August 17, 1960

Nature

  • Land use: forest (74%), agricultural land (0.1%), pasture land (0.1%)
  • Highest mountain: Milondo (1,020 m above sea level)
  • Longest river: Ogooué (800 km)

Population

  • Population density (2019): 8 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): 2.1%; birthrate 27 ‰, deathrate 6 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (38%), 15-64 (58%), 65- (4%)
  • Life expectancy (2019): men 66 years, women 69 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 34 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 4 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.702 (place 110 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 89%
  • Most populous cities (2012): Libreville (797,000 residents), Port-Gentil (150,500)

Business

  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (5%), industry (45%), service (50%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 5,564 million
  • Main export products: oil, timber
  • Main exporting countries: USA, China, Ireland
  • Imports (2017): US $ 2,829 million
  • Main import products: machinery, food, chemicals
  • Main importing countries: France, Belgium, China
  • Railway network (2014): 650 km

The central parts of Gabon are occupied by Ogooué’s river system. The numerous tributaries have carved deep valleys in the interior of the country, and on the coastal plain the river forms a large delta.

The president, who is elected for seven years, is the head of state and commander-in-chief, appoints the prime minister and holds the executive power together with a council of ministers. The National Assembly is elected by universal suffrage for five years. The general elections have usually been bordered by violent unrest and protests for alleged cheating. The country became independent in 1960.

Although a large part of the population is dependent on agriculture, Gabon’s natural resources (mainly oil, manganese and uranium) are the most influential factors in the economy. Exploitation of oil, uranium and manganese deposits and of the country’s rainforest led to rapid economic growth until the 1990s, when falling oil prices slowed growth. During the 2000s, oil prices have risen again and temporarily saved the economy. However, declining oil resources mean that the country must broaden its economic base.

Gabon Map

Gabon Map

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