Estonia Facts


Estonia, Baltic Sea State: 45 227 km2, 1.3 million residents (2019).Estonia borders east of the Russian Federation and south of Latvia. Otherwise, Estonia’s borders are coastal. The capital is Tallinn (426,500 residents, 2017).

Estonia Country Flag

Country facts

  • Eesti Vabariik / Republic of Estonia
  • Country abbreviation: EE
  • Area: 45 227 km2
  • Population (2019): 1.3 million residents
  • Capital: Tallinn
  • Main languages: Estonian, Russian
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State: Kersti Kaljulaid (President)
  • Head of Government: Jüri Ratas
  • Per capita GDP (2017): US $ 22,928
  • GNI per capita (2017): US $ 20,940
  • Currency unit: euro
  • Currency code: EUR
  • Country number (telephony): 372
  • Internet Domain Name: ee
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: +1
  • National Day: February 24 (Independence Day, 1918)

Nature

  • Land use: forest (52%), agricultural land (22%), other (26%)
  • Highest mountain: Munamägi (317 m asl)
  • Largest lake: Peipsi wolverine (3,500 km2 )

Population

  • Population density (2019): 29 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): −0.1%; birth number 11 ‰, death number 12 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (16%), 15-64 (64%), 65- (20%)
  • Life expectancy (2019): men 74 years, women 82 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 2 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 1 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.871 (place 30 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 69%
  • Most populous cities (2017): Tallinn (426,500 residents), Tartu (93,100), Narva (57,100)

Business

  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (3%), industry (29%), service (68%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 13,440 million
  • Main export products: workshop products, forest products, furniture
  • Main exporting countries: Finland, Sweden, Latvia
  • Imports (2017): US $ 14,420 million
  • Main import products: machinery, fuels, chemicals
  • Main importing countries: Finland, Germany, Lithuania
  • Railway network (2016): 2 150 km

Estonia is a flat, from the coast to the inland and from the north to the south slowly rising plateau. Towards the Gulf of Finland the plateau landing is terminated by a glint with a narrow coastal strip below.

The country is a republic with the president and parliament as the supreme power. Parliament is elected for four years, and the President is elected by Parliament for five years. Estonia regained its independence in 1991.

After independence, the economy has undergone a profound conversion process towards market economy, and the country’s economy quickly developed into one of the most liberal in the world. The entry into the EU in 2004 has therefore meant some re-regulation of the economy. Foremost is the service sector that has been responsible for growth. The country’s industry has increasingly reoriented its production to meet the Western European market. Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Germany now send raw materials to Estonia for processing. Foreign electronics and computer companies have also established themselves in the country. Estonia introduced the euro in 2011.

Estonia Map

Estonia Map

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