Greenland Facts

Greenland (Denmark)

Greenland, the world’s largest island, located in the North Atlantic; 2.2 million km2, 56,025 residents (2018).Greenland is mostly north of the Arctic Circle, and 84% of the island is covered with ice. The ice-free area is slightly larger than Norway.

Greenland’s northernmost point, Cape Morris Jesup, is 740 km from the North Pole and is thus the northernmost land area in the world, while the southern tip, Cape Farewell, is about the same latitude as Uppsala. The island is 2,670 km in the north-south direction and at its widest 1,050 km in the west-east direction.

Greenland is considered geographically included in North America, but is politically a part of Denmark – from 1953 with status as an equal part of the Kingdom of Denmark and since 1979 as an autonomous part of the Danish kingdom. The capital is Nuuk (Godthåb; 17,316 residents, 2016).

As the world’s largest island, Greenland is located in northeastern North America, ranging between the Arctic Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. Covering an area of 2,175,600 square kilometers, 4/5 of which are in the Arctic Circle, Greenland has a population of just 56,000, most whom are Greenlanders. Most people profess Christianity, and the official languages are Greenlandic and Danish. The currency is the DKK and the capital is Nuuk.

Greenland Flag

Greenland Country Flag

Country facts

  • Kalaallit Nunaat
  • Country abbreviation: GL
  • Area: 2.2 million km2
  • Population (2018): 56,025 residents
  • Capital: Nuuk (Good Hope)
  • Main languages: Greenlandic, Danish
  • State condition: autonomous part of the Kingdom of Denmark
  • Head of State: Margrethe II (Queen)
  • Head of Government: Kim Kielsen
  • Per capita GDP (2011): US $ 42 105
  • Currency unit: 1 Danish krona = 100 öre
  • Currency code: DKK
  • Internet domain name: gl
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: 0 to −4
  • National Day: June 21 (Independent Home Rule, 1979)


  • Highest mountain: Gunnbjørn mountain (3 700 m above sea level)


  • Population density (2018): 0.025 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2015): 0.6%; birth rate 14 ‰, death rate 8 ‰
  • Age structure (2015): 0-14 years (21%), 15-64 (70%), 65- (9%)
  • Average life expectancy (2015): men 69 years, women 75 years
  • Infant mortality (2015): 9 per 1,000 live births
  • Urbanization rate (2015): 86%
  • Most populous cities (2016): Nuuk (God-hope; 17,316 residents), Sisimiut (Holsteinsborg; 5,539 residents)


  • Main export products: fish, fish products
  • Main exporting countries: China, Japan, Russian Federation
  • Main import products: machinery, transport equipment, food
  • Most important importing countries are: Sweden, Iceland


  • Railway network: nothing in operation
  • Road network: only shorter roads
  • Internet users per 100 residents (2015): 68

History Summary

People arrived in Greenland about 1000 BC, migrating from northern Canada to hunt for food. In 1261 it became a Norwegian colony, and in 1380 the Danish conquered the Norwegians, and Greenland was transferred to the jurisdiction of Denmark. In 1933 the Hague Tribunal awarded to Greenland to the Danish, and in 1953 the country became a Danish Constitutional state. With Denmark in 1973 – since joined the European Economic Community. May 1, 1979, saw the formal implementation of an internal self-government, and in 1985 Greenland left the European Community.

Economy and Culture Overview

The fishing and fish processing industries are the main economic sectors, with shrimp, Greenland halibut, cod, and salmon being the primary catches. Animals are also hunted, particularly musk ox, reindeer, polar bears, and seals Minerals such as lead, zinc, chromium, cryolite, coal, tungsten, molybdenum, and uranium are mined.

Greenlanders carve fish and animal bones into a variety of exquisite handicrafts. These come in a variety of shapes, some like birds and beasts, and some like flowers, birds, fish and insects. Hunting is considered a basic life skill, enabling people to catch seals and reindeer. The major forms of transport on the island are ships, helicopters, and dog sledding, although motor boats and bikes are gradually replacing wooden skis and dogsleds.

Most of Greenland is covered by thick ice, and it is cold all year, with the average annual temperature below 0°C. People on the tip of the ice call it “perennial ice,” since the snow has formed over tens of thousands of years. Ice contains a large number of air bubbles into the cold drink cup, will be issued very delicate explosion, is a good cold agent.

Greenland ice sheet

Greenland’s ice sheet covers 80% of the island, spanning 2,530 kilometers from north to south and 1,100 kilometers from east to west, with an average thickness of 1,500 meters. The total area is 183,400 square kilometers, making it the largest expanse of ice in the Northern Hemisphere, and 12% of the world’s total solid ice. The ice has preserved information about many ancient occurrences. ice often Ice that breaks off from and floats out to the sea poses a huge threat to ocean-going vessels.

Sea leopard

Sea leopards mainly live in the Arctic seawater. They accumulate subcutaneous fat in their bodies, which forms a thick layer of fat that is resistant to the cold polar climate, and which also increases buoyancy. There are a total of 19 different species of seals in the world, with the elephant seal the largest. Greenland residents primarily hunt seals, as seal meat is rich in protein and the skin can be used to create clothes, shoes, tents, and living appliances.

Greenland Map

Greenland Map

You may also like...