Ethiopia Facts


Ethiopia, state of northeastern Africa; 1.13 million km2, 109.2 million residents (2019).Ethiopia borders Eritrea in the north and northeast, Djibouti in the east, Somalia in the east and south-east, Kenya in the south and Sudan and South Sudan in the west. The capital is Addis Ababa (3.3 million residents, 2016).

Ethiopia Country Flag

Country facts

  • Ityop’iya / Democratic Federal Republic of Ethiopia
  • Country abbreviation: ET
  • Area: 1.13 million km2
  • Population (2019): 109.2 million residents
  • Capital: Addis Ababa
  • Main language: Amharic
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State: Sahle-Work Zewde (President)
  • Head of Government: Abiy Ahmed
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 772
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 790
  • Currency unit: 1 birr = 100 cents
  • Currency code: ETB
  • Country number (telephony): 251
  • Internet Domain Name: et
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: +2
  • National Day: May 28 (Victory of the Mengistur regime, 1991)

Nature

  • Land use: forest (12%), agricultural land (13%), other (75%)
  • Highest mountain: Ras Dejen (4,620 m above sea level)
  • Largest lake: Lake Tana (3,600 km2 )

Population

  • Population density (2019): 97 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): 2.6%; birth number 33 ‰, death number 7 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (42%), 15-64 (54%), 65- (4%)
  • Average life expectancy (2019): men 64 years, women 68 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 38 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 205 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.463 (place 173 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 20%
  • Most populous cities (2016): Addis Ababa (3.3 million residents), Nazret (324,000), Mekele (323,700)

Business

  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (35%), industry (22%), service (43%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 3,230 million
  • Main export products: coffee, khat, gold
  • Main exporting countries: Sudan, Switzerland, China
  • Imports (2017): US $ 15 590 million
  • Main import products: food, oil, chemicals
  • Main importing countries: China, Saudi Arabia, India
  • Railway network (2017): 660 km

The western part of Ethiopia is occupied by a mighty highland that is divided into smaller plateau areas by deep valleys. The highlands in the west are separated from the limestone plateau in southeastern Ethiopia by a narrow burial mound, which to the northeast is funnel-shaped to the Afarsink with the Danakil desert, which lies partly beneath the sea surface. Tributaries to the Nile drain the rainy western highlands where the country’s largest lake, Lake Tanas, is located.

The country has a federal parliament with two chambers: the Representative Council, which is elected every five years, and the Federal Council, which is elected by the regions. Jointly, the Chambers elect the President of the Federal Republic every six years. The president has the most ceremonial duties. The Council of Representatives elects a prime minister who appoints a government.

Agriculture is the country’s dominant industry. Misgrowth, war and neglect have led to recurring famine disasters in recent decades. The dominant export is coffee, which accounts for two-thirds of export revenue. The great dependence on coffee exports has made the country very vulnerable to fluctuating world market prices.

Ethiopia Map

Ethiopia Map

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