Madagascar Facts


Madagascar, state of southeastern Africa; 587,000 km2, 26.3 million residents (2019).Madagascar, which is separated from the African mainland by the Mozambique Canal, includes the island of Madagascar (the world’s fourth largest island) in the Indian Ocean as well as several adjacent small islands. The capital is Antananarivo (1.3 million residents, 2015).

Madagascar Country Flag

Country facts

  • Repoblikan’i Madagasikara / Republic of Madagascar
  • Country abbreviation: MG
  • Area: 587 000 km2
  • Population (2019): 26.3 million residents
  • Capital: Antananarivo
  • Main languages: Malagasy, French
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State: Andry Rajoelina (President)
  • Head of Government: Christian Ntsay
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 461
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 440
  • Currency unit: 1 ariary = 5 francs
  • Currency code: MGA
  • Country number (telephony): 261
  • Internet domain name: mg
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: +2
  • National Day: June 26 (Independence Day, 1960)

Nature

  • Land use: forest (27%), agricultural land (5%), other (68%)
  • Highest mountain: Maromokotro (2 876 m asl)

Population

  • Population density (2019): 45 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): 3.0%; birthrate 36 ‰, deathrate 6 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (41%), 15-64 (56%), 65- (3%)
  • Life expectancy (2019): men 65 years, women 68 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 40 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 61 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.519 (place 161 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 37%
  • Most populous city (2015): Antananarivo (1.3 million residents)

Business

  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (24%), industry (20%), service (56%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 2 290 million
  • Main export products: coffee, vanilla, seafood
  • Main exporting countries: France, USA, China
  • Imports (2017): US $ 2,738 million
  • Main import products: capital goods, oil, consumer goods
  • Main importing countries: China, India, France
  • Railway network (2018): 850 km

Most of the main island consists of a centrally located highland with a north-south ridge parallel to the coast. Madagascar is entirely within the tropical climate zone, but the altitude of the central plateau country means that this gets a warm-temperate climate.

The country is led by a president, who is elected in general elections for five years. The President has a strong position and is the commander-in-chief and appoints the Prime Minister. The legislative power is held by the Senate and the National Assembly. The National Assembly is elected in general elections for four years. After a coup in 2009 and subsequent political turbulence, the country has since 2011 a unifying government. Madagascar became independent in 1960.

The economy is strongly oriented towards primary nutrition. The industrial sector is mainly focused on the processing of agricultural products. Political instability and widespread corruption have made economic changes more difficult. At the beginning of the 1990s, a certain upturn in the economy was noticeable, but natural disasters combined with internal political disputes have led to new economic problems.

Madagascar Map

Madagascar Map

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