Madagascar Overview

Country Profile

Madagascar is located in the southwest Indian Ocean, and is the world’s fourth largest island, covering an area of 627,000 square kilometers. Population of 16.98 million, with Yi Maili that race, card race, Bashiri a little family, Sakalava family in 18 tribes. Residents are primarily Christian and French is the official language, although Malagasy is also spoken. The currency is the Madagascar franc and the capital is Tana River (Antananarivo).

Madagascar National Flag

Madagascar’s flag is white, red, and green The white vertical strip symbolizes purity, the horizontal red strip symbolizes of sovereignty, and the horizontal green strip symbolizes hope.

Madagascar Country Flag

History Summary

At the end of the 16th century, the Yi Maili lived in the middle of the island and established Wang Yi Maili country. In 1794, the Yi Maili developed a Kingdom based on a feudal system. In the 19th century the island was finally unified and the Kingdom of Madagascar established. In 1896 it became a French colony, and on October 14, 1958, it became part of the French Community and an autonomous republic. On June 26, 1960, independence was declared, and the Malagasy Republic established, also known as the First Republic. On December 12, 1975, the country changed its name to the Democratic Republic of Madagascar, also known as the Second Republic. On August 19, 1992, it again changed its name to the Republic of Madagascar.

Traveler banana

Drought in the western region of Madagascar means that the only plants that can grow are those that can retain water in their stems and leaves. One such plant is called “travelers, in”, which reaches more than 20 meters high, standing tall and straight, with giant fan leaves which store kilograms of water. People with a knife poke holes into the plant to access water, thus relieving their thirst during a journey.

Economy and Culture Overview

The Madagascan economy is dominated by agriculture, with over 80% of the population employed in this sector. Animal husbandry in also plays an important role in the economy of Madagascar, which has a vast grassland where cattle, sheep, and pigs are raised. Cloves, pepper, and Chinese Manila (a Chinese climbing orchid) production is also amongst the highest in the world.

Cosmetics, liqueur and other foods also are important industries. The country is also rich in mineral resources, and has Africa’s main graphite reserves.

Madagascar is often referred to as “the red island” due to the red soil, which gets its color from surface weathering. Having split from the mainland many years before, the long years of isolation has resulted in the evolution and preservation of species, nearly 80% of which are endemic to the island. The island contains dense jungle, with a plethora of plant varieties, including no less than 10,000 species of flowers and herbs; the island is one great botanical garden. More than 500 kinds of endemic amphibians, reptiles and mammals live on the island, with many of them the last remain of species which are now extinct everywhere else. Berenty Nature Reserve contains chameleons, colorful butterflies and birds, lush cacti, tamarind trees, lemurs and other unique wildlife, attracting many biologists and scientists.

Ma Jia Sijia close fight customs and far from the African continent, with Asian countries separated by vast oceans are quite similar in Indonesia. Madagascan people revere snakes and crocodiles as sacred beings, and see the cow as a symbol of wealth, making it a national symbol. The cattle have a high peak, shaped like a hump, so are known as “hump buffalo.”


The Lemur is regarded as the national treasure of Madagascar. With a fox-like body, long tail, and primate-like head, the lemur has a gentle temperament and lives in the island’s virgin forest. They are gregarious and eat fruit and leaves. They are also distant relatives of apes and humans. One relative, the aye-aye, is referred to by the scientific community as a ‘living fossil,’ as it is threatened with extinction.

Living fossil island

Madagascar is often referred to as a “living fossil island,” since a large number of fossils of rare animals and birds have been discovered, including the world’s only fossil eggs. A sub-species of large lemurs were also found, and in 1968 bird skeletons were excavated in the southern region, now considered to be paleontological treasures. Other fossils include those of dinosaurs, hippopotamuses, and crocodiles, as well as wonderful, colorful butterflies, insects and plants.


More than half of the world’s chameleons live on Madagascar. Their skin pigment cells reflect the light, and sense temperature and emotional change, simulating the color of the surrounding environment, enabling chameleons to camouflage themselves. Their eyes can rotate, giving them a sharp-eyed, wide view. When they encounter predators encountered in a tree they drop to the ground to escape.

Madagascar Map

Madagascar Map

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