Russia Facts

Russian Federation, Russia, Northern Europe and Asia; 17 million km2, 144.5 million residents (2019). Formally, the name is Russian Federation. Since 1991, the country has been increasingly called, both domestically and internationally, only Russia. The Russian Federation is administratively divided on the basis of both ethnic and territorial criteria. The capital is Moscow (12.2 million residents, 2017).

Russia Country Flag

Country facts

  • Rossijskaja Federatsija / Russian Federation
  • Country abbreviation: RU
  • Area: 17 million km2
  • Population (2019): 144.5 million residents
  • Capital: Moscow
  • Main language: Russian
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State: Vladimir Putin (President)
  • Head of Government: Michail Misjustin
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 11,289
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 10,230
  • Currency unit: 1 ruble = 100 kopecks
  • Currency code: RUB
  • Country number (telephony): 7
  • Internet domain name: ru
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: +1 to +11
  • National Day: June 12 (Independence Day, 1991)


  • Land use: forest (45%), agricultural land (8%), other (47%)
  • Highest mountain: Elbrus (5,642 m above sea level)
  • Longest river: Volga (3,700 km)


  • Population density (2019): 8 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): -0.2%; birth rate 11 ‰, death rate 13 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (18%), 15-64 (67%), 65- (15%)
  • Life expectancy (2019): men 68 years, women 76 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 5 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 139 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.816 (place 49 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 74%
  • Most populous cities (2017): Moscow (12.2 million residents), Saint Petersburg (5.3 million), Novosibirsk (1.6 million)


  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (5%), industry (32%), service (63%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 353,000 million
  • Main export products: oil, natural gas, mineral
  • Main exporting countries: China, Netherlands, Germany
  • Imports (2017): US $ 238 000 million
  • Main import products: machines, vehicles, pharmaceuticals
  • Main importing countries: China, Germany, USA
  • Railway network (2014): 87 200 km

The Russian Federation in the West mainly consists of a huge lowland region extending from the Baltic Sea to the River Jenisej. The region is divided into the Eastern European Plains west of the Ural Mountains and the Western Siberian Plain between the Ural Mountains and Jenisei. East of Jenisei, the Central Siberian highlands rise and extend east to the river Lena, where the eastern Siberian mountain country extends and reaches the Pacific coast. Most of the country has a cold temperate humid climate with a strong continental feel. Along the Arctic Ocean is a belt with tundra climate.

The constitution gives the president a strong position but at the same time assumes that the government enjoys the confidence and support of Parliament. In the event of disagreement between the president and parliament, the constitution gives the president the decisive word. The president, who has a six-year term, proposes the head of government. Parliament consists of two chambers: the Federal Council and Duman. The latter is the working chamber and is elected for five years.

The country has huge natural resources and a broad industrial base. The transition from the Soviet-era centralized, resource-wasting and inefficient production to a more modern market economy has been difficult. Oil and natural gas account for a significant portion of the country’s GDP, but the manufacturing industry and the service sector are growing steadily.

Russia Map

Russia Map

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