Italy Facts

Italy, State of Southern Europe; 301 300 km2, 60.4 million residents (2019).In addition to land borders with France in the northwest, Switzerland and Austria in the north, and Slovenia in the northeast, the Italian mainland is surrounded by the Ligurian Sea, the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Adriatic Sea and the Ionian Sea. The islands of Sardinia and Sicily and several smaller archipelagos, including the Tuscan Archipelago as well as the Pontinian Islands, the Egadian Islands, the Liparic Islands and farthest south of the Pelagic Islands, also form part of the country. The capital is Rome (2.9 million residents, 2018).

Italy Country Flag

Country facts

  • Repubblica Italiana / Republic of Italy
  • Country abbreviation: IT (I)
  • Area: 301 300 km2
  • Population (2019): 60.4 million residents
  • Capital: Rome
  • Main language: Italian
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State: Sergio Mattarella (President)
  • Head of Government: Giuseppe Conte
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 34,318
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 33,540
  • Currency unit: euro
  • Currency code: EUR
  • Country number (telephony): 39
  • Internet domain name: it
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: 0
  • National Day: June 2 (in memory of the 1946 referendum)


  • Land use: forest (31%), agricultural land (47%), other (22%)
  • Highest mountain: Monte Rosa (4,634 m above sea level)
  • Longest river: Po (676 km)


  • Population density (2019): 200 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): −0.4%; birth number 7 ‰, death number 11 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (13%), 15-64 (64%), 65- (23%)
  • Average life expectancy (2019): men 81 years, women 85 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 3 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 58 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.887 (place 26 of 188)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 70%
  • Most populous cities (2018): Rome (2.9 million residents), Milan (1.4 million), Naples (966 100)


  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (2%), industry (24%), service (74%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 496,300 million
  • Main export products: workshop products, clothing, machinery
  • Main exporting countries: Germany, France, USA
  • Imports (2017): US $ 432,900 million
  • Main import products: workshop products, chemical products, means of transport
  • Main importing countries: Germany, France, China
  • Railway network (2014): 20 200 km

Italy is a mountainous country with two mountain ranges, the Apennines and parts of the Alps, within its borders. The mountains continue to be multi-urban with hill areas, and together they both occupy 3/4 of the land area. The rest is made up of plains, mainly Poslätten. Italy has a Mediterranean climate with winter rain and summer drought.

The legislative power is held by a two-chamber parliament, which is appointed every five years. The president is the head of state and is elected for seven years by an assembly. The president formally has certain powers of power, which he sometimes also claims. In practice, however, it is the government that has the executive power and is responsible to Parliament.

Today, Italy is one of the world’s leading industrial nations. Technology- and knowledge-intensive branches of the manufacturing industry and the service sector have also achieved significant success internationally. In recent years, the importance that the country’s many successful business sector has for many years has been paying more attention, among other things. employment and flexible industrial production.

Traditionally, northern Italy is identified as the basis for Italian industry, while the southern regions and islands appear to be the most disadvantaged parts of the country. The financial crisis of 2008–09 hit the country hard, and then Italy has been forced to implement tangible budget cuts and tax and fee increases.

Italy Map

Italy Map

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