Romania Facts


Romania, state of south-eastern Europe; 237,500 km2, 19.5 million residents (2019).Romania borders in the north to Ukraine, in the northeast to Moldova, in the south to Bulgaria, in the southwest to Serbia and in the northwest to Hungary. The capital is Bucharest (1.9 million residents, 2012).

Romania Country Flag

Country facts

  • Republica România / Romania
  • Country abbreviation: RO
  • Area: 237 500 km2
  • Population (2019): 19.5 million residents
  • Capital: Bucharest
  • Main language: Romanian
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State: Klaus Iohannis (President)
  • Head of Government: Ludovic Orban
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 12,301
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 11 290
  • Currency unit: 1 leu = 100 bani
  • Currency code: ROL
  • Country number (telephony): 40
  • Internet domain name: ro
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: +1
  • National Day: December 1 (Union Day Romania-Transylvania, 1918)

Nature

  • Land use: forest (26%), agricultural land (65%), other (9%)
  • Highest mountain: Moldoveanu (2,543 m asl)

Population

  • Population density (2019): 82 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): –0.3%; birth number 9 ‰, death number 12 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (16%), 15-64 (66%), 65- (18%)
  • Life expectancy (2019): men 72 years, women 79 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 6 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 23 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.811 (place 52 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 54%
  • Most populous cities (2012): Bucharest (1.9 million residents), Cluj-Napoca (324,600), Constanţa (283,900)

Business

  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (4%), industry (33%), service (63%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 64,580 million
  • Main export products: machinery, metal, metal products, textiles
  • Main exporting countries: Germany, Italy, France
  • Imports (2017): US $ 78 120 million
  • Main import products: machinery, chemicals, agricultural products
  • Main importing countries: Germany, Italy, Hungary
  • Railway network (2014): 10 300 km

The interior of Romania is made up of a triangular mountain country, Transylvania, which in the east and south is bounded by the Carpathians. The rest of the area consists of plains, mainly in the south and south-east and in the west as a continuation of the Hungarian plain. The country has a warm-tempered continental climate that provides large temperature differences between summer and winter.

The country’s executive power lies with the president, who is elected for five years. Legislative power resides with the National Assembly, where members are elected in general elections for four years.

When the Soviet Union disintegrated, Romania became devoid of important raw materials and at the same time lost its export markets. Production in agriculture and the heavy industry fell sharply. Privatization reforms and cuts in the public sector, together with a growing domestic market and increased productivity in the agricultural sector, led to a positive development of the economy up to the international financial crisis in 2008. Since then, the country has had major financial problems; In 2009, the country was forced to take international crisis loans. The cornerstones of the country’s business are agriculture and industry, now mainly light industries such as the textile, food and pharmaceutical industries.

Romania Map

Romania Map

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