Bulgaria Facts

Bulgaria, State of the Eastern Balkan Peninsula in Southeastern Europe; 110,994 km2, 7 million residents (2019).Bulgaria borders in the north to Romania, in the south to Turkey and Greece and in the west to northern Macedonia and Serbia and has coast to the Black Sea to the east. The capital is Sofia (1.2 million residents, 2017).

Bulgaria Country Flag

Country facts

  • Republic of Bulgaria / Republic of Bulgaria
  • Country abbreviation: BG
  • Area: 110 994 km2
  • Population (2019): 7.0 million residents
  • Capital: Sofia
  • Main language: Bulgarian
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State: Rumen Radev (President)
  • Head of Government: Boiko Borisov
  • Per capita GDP (2018): 9,273
  • GNI per capita (2018): 8,860
  • 0 US dollars
  • Currency unit: 1 lev = 100 stotinkiy
  • Currency code: BGL
  • Country number (telephony): 359
  • Internet domain name: eg
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: +1
  • National Day: March 3 (Liberation Day, 1878)


  • Land use: forest (36%), agricultural land (46%), other (18%)
  • Highest mountain: Musala (2 925 m asl)


  • Population density (2019): 63 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): −0.6%; birth rate 9 ‰, death rate 15 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (14%), 15-64 (65%), 65- (21%)
  • Life expectancy (2019): men 71 years, women 78 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 6 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 6 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.813 (place 51 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 74%
  • Most populous cities (2017): Sofia (1.2 million residents), Plovdiv (343,400), Varna (335,200)


  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (4%), industry (28%), service (68%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 29,080 million
  • Main export products: clothing, shoes, iron and steel
  • Main exporting countries: Germany, Italy, Romania
  • Imports (2017): US $ 31,430 million
  • Main import products: machinery, minerals, chemicals
  • Main importing countries: Germany, Russian Federation, Italy
  • Railway network (2014): 5 110 km

Bulgaria is located on the eastern Balkan Peninsula. The northern part consists of a plateau country, strongly torn by tributaries to the Danube. To the south, the plateau landscape rises slowly and passes without a sharp border in the Balkan mountains, which divide the country geographically. South of the Balkan mountains runs a series of fairly low mountain ranges, commonly called the Antibalkan. Further south, a fertile hilly landscape spreads, which is Bulgaria’s most important economic area.

The executive power lies with the government, which is led by a prime minister. The President, who has a limited role, is Head of State and Commander-in-Chief and is elected for a five-year term. Parliament consists of a Chamber, the National Assembly, whose members are elected for four years.

Business, which was previously strongly linked to the Soviet Union, underwent a painful and sluggish transition to market economy during the 1990s. Both agricultural and industrial production fell sharply. Great efforts were made, and the economy recovered somewhat during the 1990s. Despite economic problems in agriculture, the country still has a large agricultural sector. The industrial sector still has major problems, but during the 00s the textile industry showed a positive development. Otherwise, the greatest growth has occurred in the service and service industries.

Bulgaria Map

Bulgaria Map

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