Sofia is the capital of Bulgaria. The city is located in the western part of the country, 550 meters above sea level. on a plain north of and at the foot of the 2290-meter-high mountain range Vitosja. With 1,266,295 residents (2017), Sofia is Bulgaria’s largest city and the only million city. The city is the country’s administrative, financial, industrial and cultural center and main communication hub.
Sofia has many parks, including the 2300-acre Borishagen. In the south lies the villa district. The industry is largely concentrated in the suburbs of the north, northeast and east. The main public buildings are located at or near St. Nedela Square. The city has a subway.
Sofia has a large and versatile industry, especially the primary iron and metal and transport industries, textile, food and food and electrotechnical and chemical plants.
Sofia International Airport is located 10 km east of the city center. In 2018, 6.9 million passengers traveled to or from this airport. From the main train station there are trains to most cities in Bulgaria. There are also trains to Istanbul and Belgrade, which was completed respectively in 1873 and 1884. At the opening of the bridge over the Danube between Ruse and Giurgiu in 1954, the train connection between Sofia and Bucharest.
Sofia has more than 20 universities, colleges and other institutions of higher education. With approximately 22,000 students, the University of National and Global Economy is the country’s largest university. The University of Sofia has approximately 18,000 students.
In the city there are more than 50 museums and galleries, including the National Museum in a 14th-century mosque and the National Art Gallery. The national opera and ballet were built in the period from 1947 to 1953. The city has a number of theaters.
The Sofia Church, named after the city, dates back to the 500s. Aleksandăr Nevsky Cathedral from 1882-1917 is the largest cathedral in the country. It was raised in gratitude to Russia for the liberation of the Turks. The castle dates from 1880-1882. The Bojana Church, which dates mainly from the 13th century, was listed on UNESCO’s World Heritage and Natural Heritage List in 1979. The church’s frescoes, painted in 1259, are one of the most important collections of medieval paintings. The Sofia Synagogue was opened in 1909.
Trajan built the colony of Ulpia Serdica on the site where, before the Roman conquest, there had been a tragic city. The Huns destroyed the city in 447, but the Byzantines rebuilt it. In the Middle Ages, the city was the Bulgarian capital of the Sredets (until 1329). The city was Turkish from 1382. After being taken by the Russians in 1877, Sofia in 1878 again became the capital of Bulgaria.