Poland Facts


Poland, state of central Europe; 312,680 km2, 38 million residents (2019).Poland borders in the west to Germany, in the southwest to the Czech Republic, in the south to Slovakia, in the east to Ukraine and Belarus, in the northeast to Lithuania and in the north to the Russian exclave Kaliningrad and to the coast of the Baltic Sea in the north. The capital is Warsaw.

Poland Country Flag

Country facts

  • Rzeczpospolita Polska / Republic of Poland
  • Country abbreviation: PL
  • Area: 312 680 km2
  • Population (2019): 38 million residents
  • Capital: Warsaw
  • Main language: Polish
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State: Andrzej Duda (President)
  • Head of Government: Mateusz Morawiecki
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 15,424
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 14,150
  • Currency unit: 1 złoty = 100 groszy
  • Currency code: PLN
  • Country number (telephony): 48
  • Internet domain name: pl
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: 0
  • National Day: May 3 (First Constitution, 1791)

Nature

  • Land use: forest (31%), agricultural land (53%), other (16%)
  • Highest mountain: Rysy (2,499 m above sea level)
  • Longest river: Wisła (1 100 km)

Population

  • Population density (2019): 122 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): -0.1%; birth number 10 ‰, death number 11 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (15%), 15-64 (67%), 65- (18%)
  • Life expectancy (2019): men 74 years, women 82 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 4 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 34 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.865 (place 33 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 60%
  • Most populous cities (2014): Warsaw (1.7 million residents), Kraków (759,000) and Łódź (711,300)

Business

  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (2%), industry (40%), service (58%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 224,600 million
  • Main export products: machinery and transport equipment, furniture and wood products, clothing, food
  • Main exporting countries: Germany, Czech Republic, United Kingdom
  • Imports (2017): US $ 223,800 million
  • Main import products: machinery and means of transport, chemicals, fuel
  • Main importing countries: Germany, China, Russian Federation
  • Railway network (2014): 19 200 km

Apart from the mountainous border regions in the south, Poland is predominantly a lowland area. The climate is varied, with a maritime feel to the west and a more continental to the east.

According to the constitution adopted in 1997, the legislative power is held by the lower house of parliament, whose members are elected in general elections every four years. The same term of office applies to the upper chamber. The government has the executive power. Since 1990, the president is elected directly by the people for a five-year term. The president has overall responsibility for foreign and defense policy, but in reality the role of office is limited.

An extensive privatization of Polish business was started in 1990. For the smaller companies, this process went fast, while it took longer for the large state companies. Large parts of the heavy industry have been discontinued today, while the consumer goods industry and the service sector have developed. Unprofitable industry is still maintained, including coal mines, started with the help of government grants. Poland is also a significant agricultural country.

Poland Map

Poland Map

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