Switzerland Facts

Switzerland, Central European State;41 290 km², 8.5 million residents (2019).Switzerland, mainly occupied by the Alps, borders Germany and France in the north, Austria and Liechtenstein in the east, Italy in the south and France in the west. The capital is Bern (128,800 residents, 2014).

Switzerland Country Flag

Country facts

  • Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft (German)
    Confederation Suisse (French)
    Confederazione Svizzera (Italian) /
    Swiss Confederation
  • Country abbreviation: CH
  • Area: 41 290 km²
  • Population (2019): 8.5 million residents
  • Capital: Bern
  • Main languages: German, French, Italian
  • State: Republic
  • Head of state and head of government: the title of president rotates within the government
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 82,839
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 83,580
  • Currency unit: 1 Swiss franc = 100 centimes (French), Rappen (German)
  • Currency code: CHF
  • Country number (telephony): 41
  • Internet domain name: ch
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: 0
  • National Day: August 1 (Formation of the Swedish Confederation, 1291)


  • Land use: forest (32%), agricultural land (11%), other (57%)
  • Highest mountain: Dufour peak (4,634 m asl)
  • Largest lake: Lake Geneva (582 km² )


  • Population density (2019): 206 residents per km²
  • Natural population growth (2019): 0.2%; birth rate 10 ‰, death rate 8 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (15%), 15-64 (67%), 65- (18%)
  • Average life expectancy (2019): men 81 years, women 85 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 3 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 10 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.944 (place 2 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 85%
  • Most populous cities (2014): Zurich (384,800 residents), Geneva (191,600), Basel (167,400)


  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (1%), industry (26%), service (74%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 313,500 million
  • Main export products: machinery, chemical products, watches
  • Main exporting countries: Germany, USA, China
  • Imports (2017): US $ 264,500 million
  • Main import products: machinery, chemical raw materials, means of transport
  • Main importing countries: Germany, USA, Italy
  • Railway network (2015): 5,700 km

Switzerland is a mountainous country with the Jura mountains in the northwest and the Alps in the south and east. To the north is a large plateau between Lake Geneva and Lake Constance. The country has a transitional climate that is affected by Atlantic air masses from the west, continental from the east, Mediterranean air from the south and central Europe’s low pressure from the north. This makes the climate very variable.

At the federal level, the legislative power is held by a two-chamber parliament with standing councils and national councils; the latter is elected in general elections for a four-year term. The executive is exercised by a government. The country has no prime minister, but the ministers sit for one year at a time on the post of honorary president.

Switzerland is a poor commodity country whose business sector is characterized by a highly specialized manufacturing industry and a significant service sector, especially in banking and finance. The tourism industry is also important. The commodity shortage and the geographical location in central Europe have made the country heavily dependent on foreign trade. The international contacts and the good economic development combined with an efficient banking secrecy have helped to make Switzerland one of the world’s leading banking centers.

Switzerland Map

Switzerland Map