Germany Facts

Germany, a republic in Northern Central Europe; 357,022 km2, 82.9 million residents (2019).The German Federal Republic was formally established in October 1990, when East Germany (GDR) was incorporated into West Germany (BRD). The former West Germany makes up 70 percent of today’s Germany. The country borders in the north to Denmark and the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, in the east to Poland, in the southeast to the Czech Republic, in the south to Austria and Switzerland and in the west to France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands. Germany consists of 16 states, Countries, and the capital has been Berlin since 1991 (3.4 million residents in 2014).

Germany Country Flag

Country facts

  • Federal Republic of Germany / Federal Republic of Germany
  • Country abbreviation: DE (D)
  • Area: 356 730 km2
  • Population (2019): 82.9 million residents
  • Capital: Berlin
  • Main language: German
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State: Frank-Walter Steinmeier (President)
  • Head of Government: Angela Merkel
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 48,196
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 47 180
  • Currency unit: euro
  • Currency code: EUR
  • Country number (telephony): 49
  • Internet domain names: de
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: 0
  • National Day: October 3 (the country’s reunification, 1990)


  • Land use: forest (31%), agricultural land (20%), other (49%)
  • Highest mountain: Zugspitze (2 962 m asl)
  • Longest river: Rhine (1,320 km)


  • Population density (2019): 232 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): −0.2%; birth number 10 ‰, death number 12 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (13%), 15-64 (66%), 65- (21%)
  • Average life expectancy (2019): men 78 years, women 83 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 3 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 79 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.936 (place 5 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 77%
  • Most populous cities (2014): Berlin (3.4 million residents), Hamburg (1.7 million), Munich (1.4 million)


  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (1%), industry (31%), service (68%)
  • Exports (2017): USD 1,443,000 million
  • Main export products: machinery, vehicles, chemicals
  • Main exporting countries: USA, France, China
  • Imports (2017): US $ 1 135 000 million
  • Main import products: machinery, vehicles, chemicals
  • Main Importing Countries: The Netherlands, China, France
  • Railway network (2017): 33 600 km

The whole of northern Germany is occupied by the northern German lowlands. Towards the south takes on the Middle German mountain country, which has a strongly disintegrated topography. On either side of the middle Rhine are the Rhenska slate mountains, where a number of separate rock masses are distinguished. Further east there are several Horst plateaus, and at the far south are the northernmost foothills of the Alps. The country has a temperate humid climate with relatively small regional differences.

Germany is a federal state with a large part of state power distributed among the 16 states. The president, who is elected for five years, has essentially representative duties. Parliament consists of two chambers: the Bundestag and the Bundestag. The members of the directly elected Bundestag are elected every four years through a combination of majority voting and proportional elections. The members of the Federal Council are appointed by the state governments. The Chancellor is head of government and elected by the Federation Day. Today’s German Federal Republic was formally established in October 1990 when East Germany (GDR) was incorporated into West Germany (BRD).

Germany is one of the largest economies in the world. The economy is well developed due to the large domestic market and the large layer of medium-sized companies. After the reunification in 1990, economic development slowed down, one important reason being that the costs of integrating the former East Germany were greater than expected. Since 2010, the economy has developed positively and in the same year Germany had the highest growth rate in GDP since the reunification. Over the years, it declined somewhat, but there was still good growth in the economy.

Germany Map

Germany Map

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