Spain Facts

Spain, state of southwestern Europe; 504,782 km2, 46.7 million residents (2019).Spain encompasses the Pyrenees peninsula except Andorra, Portugal and Gibraltar, as well as the two islands of the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean and the Canary Islands in the Atlantic, as well as the urban enclaves Ceuta and Melilla on the north coast of Morocco, as well as some adjacent islands. The capital is Madrid (3.2 million residents, 2016).

Spain Country Flag

Country facts

  • Reino de España / Kingdom of Spain
  • Country abbreviation: ES (S)
  • Area: 504 782 km2
  • Population (2019): 46.7 million residents
  • Capital: Madrid
  • Main language: Spanish
  • State: Monarchy
  • Head of State: Felipe VI (King)
  • Head of Government: Pedro Sánchez
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 30,524
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 29,450
  • Currency unit: euro
  • Currency code: EUR
  • Country number (telephony): 34
  • Internet Domain Names: es
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: 0
  • National Day: October 12 (Día de la Hispanidad, commemorating Columbus discovery of America)


  • Land use: forest (36%), agricultural land (56%), other (8%)
  • Highest mountain: Pico de Teide (3,718 m asl)


  • Population density (2019): 93 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): –0.1%; birth rate 8 ‰, death rate 9 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (15%), 15-64 (66%), 65- (19%)
  • Average life expectancy (2019): 83 years; men 80 years, women 86 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 3 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 50 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.891 (place 26 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 80%
  • Most populous cities (2016): Madrid (3.2 million residents), Barcelona (1.6 million), Valencia (790,200)


  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (3%), industry (23%), service (74%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 313,700 million
  • Main export products: machines, cars, food
  • Main exporting countries: France, Germany, Italy
  • Imports (2017): US $ 338,600 million
  • Main import products: machinery, fuel, chemicals
  • Main importing countries: Germany, France, China
  • Railway network (2017): 15 300 km

The central parts of Spain are extensive plateaus. The border area to the plateaus is in many places high and mountainous. The country is within the warm-temperate climate zone but is exposed to both cool, humid air masses from the North Atlantic and dry, warm from North Africa.

The legislative power lies with Parliament, which has two chambers: the Congress and the Senate. Both Congress and the Senate are elected for four years. The Prime Minister is elected by Parliament.

Spain has in a short time been transformed from a prominent agricultural country to an industrial and service country. Contributions from the EU’s structural funds, etc., have accelerated the necessary restructuring and enabled major improvements in the country’s infrastructure. More than half of the country’s area is agricultural land, but with the exception of fruit and vegetable cultivation, agriculture yields lower returns in Spain than in many other EU countries. Traditional industrial areas are the Basque Country and Catalonia. The country also has a large tourism industry. After experiencing stable economic growth during the 1990s, the country entered a phase of negative GDP growth and rising unemployment in 2009. The economic crisis has since increased and unemployment has risen to 24 percent.

Spain Map

Spain Map

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