Tanzania Facts

Tanzania, State of East Africa; 945,000 km2, 56.3 million residents (2019).Tanzania borders in the north to Kenya, in the south to Mozambique, in the southwest to Malawi and Zambia, in the west to Congo (Kinshasa), Burundi and Rwanda and in the northwest to Uganda and to the east coast to the Indian Ocean. The capital is Dodoma (190 600 residents, 2012).

Tanzania Country Flag

Country facts

  • Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania (Swahili)
  • United Republic of Tanzania /
    United Republic of Tanzania
  • Country abbreviation: TZ
  • Area: 945 000 km2
  • Population (2019): 56.3 million residents
  • Capital: Dodoma
  • Main languages: English, Swahili
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State: John Magufuli (President)
  • Head of Government: Kassim Majaliwa
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 1,020
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 1,051
  • Currency unit: 1 shilling = 100 cents
  • Currency code: TZS
  • Country Number (Telephony): 255
  • Internet Domain Name: tz
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: +2
  • National Day: April 26 (State Formation, 1964)


  • Land use: forest (38%), agricultural land (10%), pasture land (52%)
  • Highest mountain: Kilimanjaro (5,895 m above sea level)
  • Largest lakes: Lake Victoria (69 800 km2 ), Lake Tanganyika (32 900 km2 ), Lake Malawi (31 000 km2 )


  • Population density (2019): 60 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): 3.0%; birth rate 37 ‰, death rate 7 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (44%), 15-64 (53%), 65- (3%)
  • Life expectancy (2019): men 63 years, women 66 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 42 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 129 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.538 (place 154 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 34%
  • Most populous cities (2012): Dar es-Salaam (3.4 million residents), Mwanza (640,600), Zanzibar (539,900)


  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (23%), industry (29%), service (48%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 4,971 million
  • Main export products: gold, coffee, cashew nuts
  • Main exporting countries: India, South Africa, Kenya
  • Imports (2017): US $ 7,869 million
  • Main import products: consumables, machinery and transport equipment
  • Main importing countries: India, China
  • Railway network (2014): 4,600 km

Most of Tanzania consists of plains and plateaus, mainly the large central high plateau. However, the land surface has a pronounced relief with Africa’s highest mountain, Kilimanjaro, and the world’s second deepest lake, Lake Tanganyika, as well as a large number of other mountains. A coastal plain spreads to the Indian Ocean with coral islands offshore such as Zanzibar and Pemba. Tanzania has a tropical savannah climate and steppe climate on the high plateaus. The temperature varies a bit during the year, but the daily variations are considerably greater.

The country is a union between the mainland and the island of Zanzibar. The president, who appoints all members of the government and is himself chairman of the cabinet, is elected for five years. Parliament is also elected there for five years. The state was formed in 1964 when Tanganyika and Zanzibar, who became independent from the UK in 1961 and 1963 respectively, merged.

Tanzania’s business is based on agricultural production. After socialist experiments in the 1970s, the economy collapsed, and by the early 1980s, economic problems had reached such a level that new development projects were stopped. Subsequently, the country has implemented a number of structural adjustment programs. The objectives of these have not been fully met, but the growth of the economy has improved. During the 1990s, the rate of privatization increased, including the privatization of railways, ports, airlines and electricity companies. Despite some financial success since the mid-1990s, problems remain with inadequate infrastructure and severe corruption. During the 2000s, the mining industry has grown in importance.

Tanzania Map

Tanzania Map

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