Burundi, State of East Africa; 27,800 km2, 11.2 million residents (2019).Burundi borders northeast and east to Tanzania, west to Congo (Kinshasa) – the border goes mostly through Lake Tanganyika – and north to Rwanda. Since 2019, Gitega (42,000 residents, 2009) is the capital.
- Republic of Burundi / Republic of Burundi
- Country abbreviation: BI
- Area: 27 800 km2
- Population (2019): 11.2 million residents
- Capital: Gitega
- Main languages: rundi (kirundi), French
- State: Republic
- Head of State and Head of Government: Pierre Nkurunziza (President)
- Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 275
- GNI per capita (2018): US $ 280
- Currency: 1 franc = 100 centimes
- Currency code: BIF
- Country number (telephony): 257
- Internet domain name: bi
- Time difference compared to Sweden: +1
- National Day: July 1 (Independence Day, 1962)
- Land use: agricultural land (52%), other (48%)
- Highest mountain: Heha (2,670 m above sea level)
- Population density (2019): 403 residents per km2
- Natural population growth (2019): 3.2%; birth rate 40 ‰, death rate 8 ‰
- Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (45%), 15-64 (53%), 65- (2%)
- Life expectancy (2019): men 59 years, women 63 years
- Infant mortality (2019): 43 per 1,000 live births
- Population forecast 2050: 25 million residents
- HDI (2017): 0.417 (place 185 of 189)
- Urbanization rate (2019): 13%
- Most populous city (2010): Bujumbura (374,800 residents)
- Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (40%), industry (16%), service (44%)
- Exports (2017): US $ 119 million
- Main export products: coffee, tea
- Main exporting countries: Congo (Kinshasa), Switzerland, United Arab Emirates
- Imports (2017): US $ 604 million
- Main import products: capital goods, oil products, foodstuffs
- Main importing countries: India, China, Kenya
- Railway network: nothing in operation
Burundi consists of an elevated plateau in the eastern Tanganyika tomb, sloping to the east and southeast. The country is located in the tropical climate zone. Most of the land is currently cultivated or consists of pasture land.
According to the 2005 Constitution, Parliament should consist of a Senate with as many Hutus as Tutsis and a National Assembly where the Hutus should have 60% of the seats and Tutsis remaining. The members of the government must have the same ethnic distribution; furthermore, 30% should be women. The president is elected for a term of five years.
Burundi became independent in 1962, and throughout the period of independence the country has been characterized by the conflict between Hutus and Tutsis. The conflict has periodically blossomed into civil war, which has resulted in many being killed and driven hundreds of thousands into refuge within the country or to neighboring countries.
Burundi is a prominent agricultural country. The trade deficit is large because exports (mainly coffee) have never covered the cost of importing food and capital goods.