Sao Tome and Principe Facts


Sao Tome and Principe, the state off the West African coast; 1,000 km2, 211 000 residents (2019).São Tomé and Príncipe, located on the equator outside Gabon and Equatorial Guinea, consist of the two main islands of São Tomé and Príncipe as well as some smaller islands. The capital is São Tomé (67 900 residents, 2012).

Sao Tome and Principe Country Flag

Country facts

  • Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe / São Tomé and Príncipe Democratic Republic
  • Country abbreviation: ST
  • Area: 1 000 km2
  • Population (2019): 211,000 residents
  • Capital: São Tomé
  • Main languages: Portuguese
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State: Evaristo Carvalho (President)
  • Head of Government: Jorge Bom Jesus
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 2,001
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 1 890
  • Currency unit: 1 dobra = 100 cêntimos
  • Currency code: STD
  • Country number (telephony): 239
  • Internet domain name: st
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: −1
  • National Day: July 12 (Independence Day, 1975)

Nature

  • Land use: agricultural land (54%), other (46%)
  • Highest mountain: Pico de São Tomé (2,024 m asl)

Population

  • Population density (2019): 211 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): 2.0%; birthrate 26 ‰, deathrate 6 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (28%), 15-64 (69%), 65- (3%)
  • Life expectancy (2019): men 65 years, women 71 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 33 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 400,000 residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.589 (place 143 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 68%
  • Most populous city (2012): São Tomé (67 900 residents)

Business

  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (12%), industry (15%), service (73%)
  • Export (2017): US $ 16 million
  • Main export product: cocoa
  • Main exporting countries: Guyana, Germany, Portugal
  • Imports (2017): US $ 128 million
  • Main import products: capital goods, food, fuel
  • Main importing countries: Portugal, Angola
  • Railway network: nothing in operation

The islands of São Tomé and Príncipe are of volcanic origin and constitute a continuation of the course of volcanism extending from the Cameroon Mountains to the southwest. From the highlands, watercourses are striving down the low-lying coastal area. The islands have a tropical climate and the temperature is around 27 °C, with slight variations during the year.

According to the constitution, the president holds the executive power and is elected in general elections for five years. The President is responsible to the National Assembly and appoints the Government. The National Assembly is elected for four years in general elections.

The country’s economy has been based almost exclusively on cocoa cultivation, which has made the country very vulnerable. The industry is undeveloped, and besides agriculture, fishing is an important source of income. As the country’s own fishing fleet is small, a large part of the state budget is financed through the sale of fishing rights to foreign fishing fleets. In the late 1990s, oil was found off the coast of the country, which could dramatically change the country’s economic situation. Oil production is expected to start in 2014.

Sao Tome and Principe Map

Sao Tome and Principe Map

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