Sudan, state of northeastern Africa; 1.9 million km2, 41.8 million residents (2019).Sudan borders north to Egypt, has northeast coast to the Red Sea and borders east to Eritrea and Ethiopia, south to South Sudan, southwest to Central African Republic, west to Chad and northwest to Libya.
The capital is Khartoum (2.7 million residents, 2012).
- Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān / Republic of Sudan
- Country abbreviation: SD
- Area: 1.9 million km2
- Population (2019): 41.8 million residents
- Capital: Khartoum
- Main languages: Arabic
- State: Republic
- Head of State: Abdel Fattah al-Burhan (Transitional Council leader)
- Head of Government: Abdalla Hamdok
- Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 977
- GNI per capita (2018): US $ 1,560
- Currency unit: Sudanese pound
- Currency code: SDG
- Country number (telephony): 249
- Internet domain name: sd
- Time difference compared to Sweden: +2
- National Day: January 1 (Independence Day, 1956)
- Land use: forest (12%), agricultural land (7%), other (81%)
- Highest mountain: Jebbel Marra (3,042 m asl)
- Population density (2019): 22 residents per km2
- Natural population growth (2019): 2.6%; birth number 33 ‰, death number 7 ‰
- Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (41%), 15-64 (55%), 65- (4%)
- Life expectancy (2019): men 63 years, women 67 years
- Infant mortality (2019): 43 per 1,000 live births
- Population forecast 2050: 81 million residents
- HDI (2017): 0.502 (place 167 of 189)
- Urbanization rate (2019): 36%
- Most populous city (2012): Omdurman (2.8 million residents), Khartoum (2.7 million)
- Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (40%), industry (3%), service (57%)
- Exports (2017): US $ 4,100 million
- Main export products: gold, oil, agricultural products
- Main exporting countries: United Arab Emirates, Egypt, Saudi Arabia
- Imports (2017): US $ 8,220 million
- Main import products: food, industrial goods, pharmaceuticals
- Main Importing Countries: United Arab Emirates, Egypt, India
- Railway network (2014): 7,200 km
Most of Sudan is occupied by a huge basin area, which is surrounded by mountains and high plateaus and crossed from south to north by the Nile. To the north are large areas with rocky deserts and sand dunes. Along the Red Sea there is a narrow coastal plain. Sudan has a tropical climate in the north that is dry with desert climate in the northwest and steppe climate in the northeast, but savannah climate in the south.
The country has been ruled by a militarily dominated government since 1989. Sudan was one of the worst dictatorships in the world during the 1990s, and extensive violations of human rights have also been reported during the 2000s. The country became independent in 1956, and in 2011 it gained its present scope when the southern parts formed the independent state of South Sudan.
Previously, the country was rich in oil and natural gas and various minerals, but in the formation of South Sudan a large part of the oil deposits in South Sudan ended up, while the oil refinery and other oil related industry ended up in Sudan. This situation has, on several occasions, resulted in the ceasefire being broken and the relationship between the two countries rapidly deteriorating. The oil accounts for a large part of export income, while most Sudanese live on agriculture and livestock farming.