Mali Facts

Mali, State of West Africa; 1.2 million km2, 19.1 million residents (2019).Mali borders Algeria in the northeast, Niger in the east, Burkina Faso in the southeast, Ivory Coast in the south, Guinea in the southwest and Senegal and Mauritania in the west. The capital is Bamako (1.8 million residents, 2010).

Mali Country Flag

Country facts

  • Republic of Mali / Republic of Mali
  • Country abbreviation: ML
  • Area: 1.2 million km2
  • Population (2019): 19.1 million residents
  • Capital: Bamako
  • Main languages: French, Bamboo
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State: Ibrahim Boubacar Keita (President)
  • Head of Government: Boubou Cissé
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 901
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 830
  • Currency unit: 1 CFA franc = 100 centimes
  • Currency code: XOF
  • Country number (telephony): 223
  • Internet Domain Name: ml
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: −1
  • National Day: September 22 (Proclamation of the Republic, 1960)


  • Land use: forest (6%), agricultural land (4%), other (mainly desert, 90%)
  • Highest mountain: Hombori Tondo (1,155 m above sea level)


  • Population density (2019): 16 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): 3.6%; birth number 46 ‰, death number 10 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (48%), 15-64 (49%), 65- (3%)
  • Life expectancy (2019): men 58 years, women 63 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 54 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 47 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.427 (place 182 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 42%
  • Most populous city (2010): Bamako (1.8 million residents)


  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (42%), industry (18%), service (40%)
  • Exports of goods (2017): US $ 3,060 million
  • Main export products: cotton, gold, cattle
  • Main exporting countries: Switzerland, United Arab Republic, Burkina Faso
  • Imports of goods (2017): US $ 3 644 million
  • Main import products: oil, machinery, food
  • Main importing countries: Senegal, China, Ivory Coast
  • Railway network (2014): 600 km

Northern Mali is part of the Sahara, while the southern part of the country belongs to the Sudan region. The Niger River makes a strong bend in Mali and develops a vast inland west of the Dogon Plateau. The country has a dry and hot high-pressure weather. The most precipitation gets the Sudan region in the south.

According to the constitution, the country has a strong presidential power and a multi-party system. The president, who holds the executive power, is elected in general elections every five years. Legislative power belongs to the National Assembly, also elected for five years. In 2012, the incumbent President, Amadou Toumani Tourés, was deposed in a military coup and power handed over to the President of Parliament to announce new elections. The reason for the military coup was the military’s dissatisfaction with how the government handled the conflict with the Tuareg governments in Mali. The country became independent in 1960.

The economy is traditionally highly agricultural oriented, but during the 2000s gold became the country’s most important export commodity. Mali’s industrial sector is a little developed, and the country is heavily indebted and dependent on loans from abroad. During the 1990s, the tourism industry grew, but as a result of the unrest in northern Mali, the industry has stagnated.

Mali Map

Mali Map

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