Tonga Facts

Tonga, state of the South Pacific; 748 km2, 103,000 residents (2019).Tonga encompasses the Tonga Islands, also called the Friendship Islands, English Friendly Islands (172 islands, of which 36 are permanently inhabited), and is located approximately 650 km southeast of Fiji. The capital is Nuku’alofa (36,000 residents, 2012) on the largest island, Tongatapu, in the southern part of the archipelago.

Togo Country Flag

Country facts

  • Pule’anga Fakatu’i’o Tonga
    Kingdom of Tonga / Kingdom of Tonga
  • Country abbreviation: TO
  • Area: 748 km2
  • Population (2019): 103,000 residents
  • Capital: Nuku’alofa
  • Main languages: English, Tonga
  • State: Monarchy
  • Head of State: Tupou VI
  • Head of Government: Pohiva Tu’i’onetoa
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 4,364
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 4,300
  • Currency unit: 1 pa’anga = 100 seniti
  • Currency code: TOP
  • Country Number (Telephony): 676
  • Internet domain name: two
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: +12
  • National Day: June 4 (Independence Day, 1970)


  • Land use: forest (11%), agricultural land (67%), other (22%)
  • Highest mountain: unnamed elevation on the island of Kao (1,031 m above sea level)


  • Population density (2019): 138 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): 1.7%; birth rate 24 ‰, death rate 7 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (36%), 15-64 (58%), 65- (6%)
  • Life expectancy (2019): men 69 years, women 73 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 17 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 100,000 residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.726 (place 98 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 23%
  • Most populous city (2012): Nuku’alofa (36,000 residents)


  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (20%), industry (20%), service (60%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 18 million
  • Main export products: pumpkins, fish, vanilla
  • Main exporting countries: China, New Zealand, USA
  • Imports (2017): US $ 250 million
  • Main import products: food, machinery and transport equipment, fuel
  • Main importing countries: China, Fiji, USA
  • Railway network: nothing in operation

Tonga encompasses approximately 170 islands, most in two rows parallel to the Tongagraven further east. The islands form the peaks of volcanoes and are higher in the western line due to repeated volcanism. The islands of the eastern line are low and covered with coral lime, which also protects against degradation. The country has a warm and humid climate; humidity is increasing north.

Tonga is divided into three island groups. The country is a constitutional hereditary monarchy, but in recent years the king’s power has diminished. Since the 2010 election, the government has assumed the executive power of the King and the Crown Council. The number of elected representatives in Parliament has also increased. The country became independent from the UK in 1970 and is a member of the Commonwealth.

The business sector is dominated by agriculture and tourism. The most important forage crops are coconuts, vanilla and pumpkins, which for most years make up the bulk of Tonga’s exports. For personal consumption, root vegetables, breads, watermelons, vegetables, citrus fruits and peanuts are grown. The industrial sector consists mainly of light industry. Tourism makes a significant contribution to the economy and reduces the trade deficit. More recently, efforts have been made to develop fishing and pear farming. The country is also dependent on financial aid from Australia, New Zealand and China.

Tonga Map

Tonga Map

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