Haiti, State of the Caribbean; 27,750 km2, 11.1 million residents (2019).Haiti covers the western part of the island of Hispaniola (also called Haiti) in the Greater Antilles. The capital is Port-au-Prince (928,000 residents, 2012).
- Republic of Haiti / Republic of Haiti
- Country abbreviation: HT
- Area: 27 750 km2
- Population (2019): 11.1 million residents
- Capital: Port-au-Prince
- Main languages: French, Haitian
- State: Republic
- Head of State: Jovenel Moïse (President)
- Head of Government: Jospeh Jouthe
- Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 868
- GNI per capita (2018): US $ 800
- Currency unit: 1 gourde = 100 centimes
- Currency code: HTG
- Country number (telephony): 509
- Internet Domain Name: ht
- Time difference compared to Sweden: −6
- National Day: January 1 (Independence Day, 1804)
- Land use: forest (5%), agricultural land (33%), other (72%)
- Highest mountain: La Selle (2,674 m asl)
- Population density (2019): 400 residents per km2
- Natural population growth (2019): 1.6%; birthrate 25 ‰, death count 9 ‰
- Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (34%), 15-64 (61%), 65- (5%)
- Average life expectancy (2019): men 61 years, women 66 years
- Infant mortality (2019): 59 per 1,000 live births
- Population forecast 2050: 15 million residents
- HDI (2017): 0.498 (place 168 of 189)
- Urbanization rate (2019): 55%
- Most populous city (2012): Port-au-Prince (928,000 residents)
- Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (22%), industry (20%), service (58%)
- Exports (2017): US $ 980 million
- Main export products: clothing, manufacturing
- Main exporting countries: USA, Dominican Republic
- Imports (2017): US $ 3,618 million
- Main import products: food, oil products, machinery
- Main importing countries: USA, China, Netherlands
- Railway network: no railway network
Haiti is very mountainous. The mountain ranges in the north and south mean that Haiti has two projecting peninsula far to the west. These enclose the wide and deep penetration of the Gulf of Gonâve and the island of Gonâve.
The legislative power is a parliament with two chambers; the executive power belongs to the president who is elected for five years.
Haiti, which became independent in 1804, is one of the world’s poorest countries. Comparable economic and social indicators show that the country has slipped after many other poor countries. Political chaos, age-old production methods and extensive land destruction make the country very difficult to recover in the foreseeable future. Agricultural commodities dominate exports, but the importance of industrial products has increased. Due to economic special regulations for foreign-owned industry, only a small part of the income from the production increase will benefit the country.
In 2010, the capital Port-au-Prince was hit by a powerful earthquake and nearly 225,000 people were killed. The city and the country have still not recovered from this disaster. The situation worsened further in 2012 when the country was hit by tropical cyclone Sandy.