Turkmenistan Facts


Turkmenistan, Central Asian State; 488,000 km2, 5.8 million residents (2019).Turkmenistan borders north to Kazakhstan, north and east to Uzbekistan, southeast to Afghanistan, south to Iran and west to the Caspian Sea. The capital is Ashgabat (1 million residents, 2012).

Turkmenistan Country Flag

Country facts

  • Türkmenistan / Turkmenistan
  • Country abbreviation: TM
  • Area: 488 000 km2
  • Population (2019): 5.8 million residents
  • Capital: Ashgabat
  • Main language: Turkmen
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State and Head of Government: Gurbanguli Berdimuchammedov
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 6,967
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 6,740
  • Currency unit: 1 month = 100 tenni
  • Currency code: TMM
  • Country number (telephony): 993
  • Internet domain name: tm
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: +4
  • National Day: October 27 (Independence Day, 1991)

Nature

  • Land use: forest (8%), agricultural land (3%), other (89%)
  • Highest mountain: Ayribaba (2,942 m asl)

Population

  • Population density (2019): 12 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): 1.7%; birth rate 24 ‰, death rate 7 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (31%), 15-64 (65%), 65- (4%)
  • Life expectancy (2019): men 64 years, women 71 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 44 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 8 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.706 (place 108 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 52%
  • Most populous cities (2012): Ashgabat (1 million residents), Chardzhou (408,900), Tasjauz (275,300)

Business

  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (8%), industry (45%), service (47%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 7,458 million
  • Main export products: natural gas, crude oil, cotton
  • Main exporting countries: China, Turkey
  • Imports (2017): US $ 7,571 million
  • Main import products: machinery, chemicals, food
  • Main importing countries: Turkey, Algeria, Germany
  • Railway network (2014): 3,000 km

Turkmenistan is one in four fifths of plains. Only the border regions in the south towards Iran and in the southeast towards Afghanistan are highlands. Large parts of the coastal zone along the Caspian Sea are below sea level. The Amu-Darja River flows through southeastern Turkmenistan. The Karakum Canal divert a not insignificant portion of the water from the river to irrigate cotton crops in Karakum. The country has a continental climate with large temperature differences during the day as well as the year.

According to the constitution, the president is to be elected in direct elections for five years. There are two bodies with elected members: the Legislative Parliament and the People’s Council. None of these have any real power, but all new laws must be approved by the president, who also has the right to govern through decrees. Turkmenistan became independent in 1991, when the Soviet Union disbanded.

The country’s business is characterized by natural gas and cotton exports. Turkmenistan is one of the world’s largest natural gas exporters, and the country is also believed to have large oil resources. The industry is related to oil and gas extraction and cotton production. For example, the country has a large carpet production. Recently, many other countries and foreign companies have participated in the development of the country’s energy sector.

Turkmenistan Map

Turkmenistan Map

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