Dublin is the political, economic and cultural center of the Republic of Ireland. In 2012, the city had 555,000 residents, with suburbs (Greater Dublin) approximately 1.9 million residents. The town is located on the river Liffey in the Irish Sea.
From the harbor, which is protected by long pier and equipped with large docks and yards, beer, whiskey, cattle, meat, leather and more are exported. Passenger traffic to the UK (Holyhead in Wales) crosses Dún Laoghaire, 12 km south of the city center. The international airport is 10 km north of the city center.
The industry is significant in Dublin. There are large breweries, including Guinness, car and railway workshops. Furthermore, whiskey, tobacco and textile products, shoes, machines etc. are manufactured. Since the late 1980s, the IT industry in Dublin has grown considerably, and many international IT companies have their European headquarters here.
Public institutions, culture, etc.
Dublin is the seat of Trinity College or the University of Dublin, founded in 1591 by Elizabeth 1 to promote Protestantism in Ireland. It is well known for its rich library of many Old Irish manuscripts. University College Dublin from 1909 was established as part of the Irish National University, which has since dissolved. Dublin City University was established as a technical college in 1975 and gained university status in 1989. Furthermore, there are colleges and vocational schools, scientific companies, zoological and botanical gardens, observatory, etc.
Dublin is Roman Catholic and Anglican Archbishopric. The Abbey Theater, founded in 1904, was the center of the Irish cultural freedom movement. Of the city’s art collections mention the National Museum (1731), the National Gallery of Ireland (1864) and the Municipal Gallery of Modern Art.
Dublin has many historic buildings and beautiful thoroughfares. Particularly famous is the wide O’Connell Street, the city’s main street, on the north side of the Liffey River. One of the most beautiful places is Merrion Square (1762), designed by John Ensor. The architecture is largely characterized by the 18th century.
The Protestant Christchurch Cathedral was originally founded by the Norwegian chain Sigtrygg Silk Beard around 1030. St. Patrick’s Cathedral (1190) is the main church of the Anglican Church in Ireland (Church of Ireland). It contains Jonathan Swift’s tombstone. The Catholic St Mary’s Pro-Cathedral dates from 1825.
On the south shore of Liffey lies Dublin Castle, begun about 1200, but mostly built in the 16th century and later. It is now a hangout for government offices. Leinster House (1745) is the seat of Parliament’s two chambers. Another stately building is the Bank of Ireland, begun in 1729, where the Irish Parliament lasted until 1801. In Phoenix Park, one of the largest city parks in Europe, is the Presidential Palace (former residence of the Viceroy) and a zoo. In 2003, the sculpture The Dublin Spire, was erected on the main street of O’Connell Street right in the center. It is 120 m high and the city’s tallest construction.
Dublin as a city dates back to the 840s, when the Norwegian Vikings built a castle at the Liffey estuary and founded the Kingdom of Dublin. In the battle of the present suburb of Clontarf in 1014, the Irish King Brian Boru fell, but the Irish prevailed and held Dublin for a time. However, the Nordic kingdom ceased for good only when the English occupied the city in 1171. Henry 2 gave Dublin to Bristol’s citizens and made it the capital of the English- occupied part of the island (The Pale). In 1689, Jacob 2 held his last parliament in Dublin.
The town was later the center of Irish freedom efforts. Here Robert Emmet was executed in 1803 and here were Daniel O’Connell and Charles Stewart Parnell. In 1916 Dublin was the scene of the Easter rebellion and in 1920-1922 for constant fighting between the Irish and British and various Irish factions among themselves. 1919 Parliamentary seat, 1922 government seat.
Dublin and the suburbs were heavily modernized during the first half of the 1990s. The city received a significant financial boost and many new jobs by attracting more international IT companies. The city experienced economic decline in the early 2000s.