Luxembourg, capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; 77,300 residents (2004). The town lies on the plateau and partly down a deep ravine by the river Alzette, a western tributary to the Moselle; 230–380 m asl The eastern and western districts are connected by several bridges (including Pont Adolphe, built 1903). The city has a machine and textile industry and is an international banking and financial center. Several commercial radio and television stations. University founded 1969. Catholic Diocese. Luxembourg is the seat of the European Parliament, the European Court of Justice, the European Investment Bank and several other EU institutions. European Cultural City 1995.
The area was inhabited in both Celtic and Roman times, but the town itself grew around a castle erected on the Bouc cliff in the second half of the 900s. The Notre Dame Cathedral was partially rebuilt in 1613-15. The Grand Duke’s palace, the Grand Ducal Palace, was originally built as a town hall in 1572, rebuilt in the 19th century. The old fortifications (Les Casemattes) on the mountain side are laid out to park.