Peru Facts

Peru, State of Western South America; 1.3 million km2, 32 million residents (2019).Peru borders Ecuador and Colombia in the north, Brazil and Bolivia in the east, and Chile in the south and has a coast to the Pacific in the west. The capital is Lima (9.6 million residents, 2018).

Peru Country Flag

Country facts

  • Republic of Peru / Republic of Peru
  • Country abbreviation: PE
  • Area: 1.3 million km2
  • Population (2019): 32 million residents
  • Capital: Lima
  • Main languages: Spanish, Quechua
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State and Head of Government: Martín Vizcarra (President)
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 6,947
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 6,530
  • Currency unit: 1 nuevo sol = 100 centimos
  • Currency code: PEN
  • Country number (telephony): 51
  • Internet domain name: pe
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: −6
  • National Day: July 28 (Independence Day, 1821)


  • Land use: forest (66%), agricultural land (3%), other (31%)
  • Highest mountain: Huascarán (6,768 m above sea level)
  • Largest lake: Lake Titicaca (8 100 km2 )


  • Population density (2019): 25 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): 1.3%; birthrate 18 ‰, death count 5 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (26%), 15-64 (66%), 65- (8%)
  • Life expectancy (2019): men 74 years, women 79 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 13 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 40 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.750 (place 89 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 78%
  • Most populous cities (2018): Lima (9.6 million residents), Arequipa (1 million), Trujillo (857 100)


  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (8%), industry (33%), service (59%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 44,920 million
  • Main export products: copper, gold, zinc
  • Main exporting countries: China, USA, Switzerland
  • Imports (2017): US $ 38,650 million
  • Main import products: oil and oil products, chemicals, plastics
  • Main importing countries: China, USA, Brazil
  • Railway network (2014): 1 800 km

Peru consists of three natural regions: a desert coastal plain in the west, the Andes mountain range in the middle parts and the Amazon basin’s forested lowlands in northeastern Peru. Elevation conditions and winds give very different climatic conditions in the west and east. The coastal plain is dry, while the lowland to the east has humid tropical climate.

According to the constitution, the executive power belongs to the president, who is both head of state and government. The legislative power belongs to Congress. Elections to the presidential and congressional offices are made simultaneously for a period of five years.

Following a crisis in the 1980s, a rigorous stabilization and restructuring program was implemented during the 1990s with comprehensive economic reforms, such as the privatization of virtually all state-owned enterprises, liberalization of markets, the creation of a freer and safer investment climate, investment in export-led growth and wide opening. to the outside world. It is mainly the mining industry that is the dynamic sector in the business sector, followed by construction and fishing. The construction sector has recently experienced great growth, mainly due to large government construction projects. Although the country has enjoyed good economic growth during most of the 2000s, the economic gaps have not diminished. There are still large slums around the big cities and the informal sector is large.

Peru Map

Peru Map

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