Singapore is a small city state with a very high standard of living and a strong international economy. Since independence in 1965, the country has been governed by one authoritarian party.
Key figures and facts
- Capital: Singapore
- Ethnic groups: Chinese 74.3%, Malaysian 13.4%, Indian 9%, other 3.2% (2018)
- Language: English (official) 36.9%, Mandarin (official) 34.9%, other Chinese dialects (including Hockey, Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka) 12.2%, Malay (Official) 10.7%, Tamil (Official) 3, 3%, other 2% (2015)
- Religion: Buddhists 33.2%, Christians 18.8%, Muslims 14%, Taoists 10%, Hindus 5%, No 19.1% (2015)
- Population: 5,791,901 (2018)
- Control Form: Republic
- Area: 716 km2
- Currency: Singapore Dollar
- GNP per capita: 87 833 PPP $
- National Day: August 9th
Singapore is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Because of the island’s history as a regional trade center, it also has a very diverse population of mainly Chinese, Malays and Indians, but also a large minority of immigrants from Europe and the United States, as well as labor migrants from other parts of Asia.
Population, population growth and migration
The population of Singapore is 5,995,991 (2018, CIA World Factbook). Population growth in 2018 was 1.79 percent.
The birth and death rates per 1000 residents are 8.7 and 3.5 respectively, while the birth rate per woman is 0.84 children. Net immigration is 12.7 per thousand. Life expectancy at birth is for women up to 88.3 years and for men 88.8 years. (2018)
The population is mainly descendants of immigrants who arrived under British colonial rule. The largest population is Chinese (74.3 percent), followed by Malay (13.4 percent) and Indians (9.0 percent). The Chinese have been the largest ethnic group since 1830. Most are descendants of immigrants from Guangdong and Fujian provinces in southern China, and are often divided into four main groups according to the dialect they speak: hockey, teochew, cantonese and chop. Over half of Indians are Tamils.
Official languages are English, Chinese (Mandarin), Malay and Tamil. English is a public language. Mandarin and other Chinese dialects are the first language for 47.1 percent of the population. For the other official languages, the percentage is as follows: English 36.9, Malay 10.7 and Tamil 3.3 (2015).
33.2 percent of the population are Buddhists, 18.8 percent are Christians, 10.0 percent are Taoists and 5.0 percent are Muslims. The rest of the population is affiliated with other faiths, including Confucianism. The Chinese are mostly Confucian and Buddhist, the Malay and Pakistani are Muslim, the Indians mostly Hindus.