Japan, State of East Asia; 377,835 km2, 126.5 million residents (2019).Japan, located just over 800 km east of mainland China and 190 km east of the Korean Peninsula, comprises just over 6,000 islands, of which the four largest are Honshu (231,100 km2 ), Hokkaido (83,500 km2 ), Kyushu (42,200 km2 ) and Shikoku (18,800 km2 ). From Kyushu, the Ryukyu Islands extend in an arc toward Taiwan. North of Hokkaido are the Habomai Islands, Shikotan, Kunashiri and Etorofu; these former Japanese islands were occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, but Japan claims them. Japan’s area is gradually increasing peacefully; since the 1950s has more than 800 km 2land gained from the sea through polder plants. The capital is Tokyo (9.6 million residents, 2018).
- Nihon / Japan
- Country abbreviation: JP
- Area: 377 835 km2
- Population (2019): 126.5 million residents
- Capital: Tokyo
- Main language: Japanese
- State: Monarchy
- Head of State: Naruhito (Emperor)
- Head of Government: Shinzo Abe
- Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 39,287
- GNI per capita (2018): US $ 41,340
- Currency unit: 1 yen = 100 sen
- Currency code: JPY
- Country number (telephony): 81
- Internet domain name: jp
- Time difference compared to Sweden: +8
- National Day: February 11 (the country’s first emperor’s coronation)
- Land use: forest (66%), agricultural land (12%), other (22%)
- Highest mountain: Fuji (3,776 m asl)
- Population density (2019): 335 residents per km2
- Natural population growth (2019): −0.4%; birth number 7 ‰, death number 11 ‰
- Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (12%), 15-64 (60%), 65- (28%)
- Average life expectancy (2019): men 81 years, women 87 years
- Infant mortality (2019): 2 per 1,000 live births
- Population forecast 2050: 110 million residents
- HDI (2017): 0.909 (place 19 of 189)
- Urbanization rate (2019): 92%
- Most populous cities (2018): Tokyo (9.6 million residents), Yokohama (3.7 million), Osaka (2.7 million)
- Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (1%), industry (30%), service (69%)
- Exports (2017): US $ 688,900 million
- Main export products: machinery, means of transport
- Main exporting countries: USA, China, South Korea
- Imports (2017): US $ 644,700 million
- Main import products: machinery, fuel, food
- Main Importing Countries: China, USA, Australia
- Railway network (2015): 27,300 km
Japan consists of mountainous islands. Active volcanoes are located on the island of Kyushu as well as on the Ryukyu Islands in the southwest. The country has a temperate monsoon climate. During late summer and autumn, southern Japan is sometimes hit by tropical cyclones.
The country is a constitutional monarchy, a democracy with a people-elected parliament and with a government led by a prime minister. The emperor is now merely a symbol of the state. Parliament has two chambers: the lower house with 480 members elected for four years; the 242 members of the upper house are elected for six years. The lower house is the strongest of the two chambers.
The country’s economy, which is one of the largest in the world, is characterized by a strong value community between business and the state. Decisions on laws and other state regulations have been made in agreement between industry and the financial sector. Throughout the 20th century, the economy was based on imports of raw materials and exports of increasingly advanced industrial products. Recently, the share of services in GDP has risen, while the share of industry has decreased.
In 2011, the country was hit hard by an earthquake with the accompanying tsunami. the nuclear power plant in Fukushima was severely damaged.