Colombia Facts


Colombia, state of northwestern South America; 1.1 million km2, 49.6 million residents (2019).The country extends almost 1,800 km from north to south and 1 260 km from east to west. The capital is Bogotá.

Colombia Country Flag

Country facts

  • Republic of Colombia / Republic of Colombia
  • Country abbreviation: CO
  • Area: 1.1 million km2
  • Population (2019): 49.6 million residents
  • Capital: Bogotá
  • Main language: Spanish
  • State: Republic
  • Head of State and Head of Government: Iván Duque (President)
  • Per capita GDP (2018): US $ 6,651
  • GNI per capita (2018): US $ 6,190
  • Currency unit: 1 peso = 100 centavos
  • Currency code: COP
  • Country number (telephony): 57
  • Internet domain name: co
  • Time difference compared to Sweden: −6
  • National Day: July 20 (Independence Day, 1810)

Nature

  • Land use: forest (22%), agricultural land (6%), other (72%)
  • Highest mountain: Cristobal Colón (5,775 m asl)

Population

  • Population density (2019): 45 residents per km2
  • Natural population growth (2019): 1.0%; birth number 16 ‰, death number 6 ‰
  • Age structure (2019): 0-14 years (23%), 15-64 (68%), 65- (9%)
  • Life expectancy (2019): men 73 years, women 79 years
  • Infant mortality (2019): 14 per 1,000 live births
  • Population forecast 2050: 56 million residents
  • HDI (2017): 0.747 (place 90 of 189)
  • Urbanization rate (2019): 77%
  • Most populous cities (2017): Bogotá (8.1 million residents), Medellín (2.5 million), Cali (2.4 million)

Business

  • Industry’s contribution to GDP (2017): agriculture (7%), industry (31%), service (62%)
  • Exports (2017): US $ 39,480 million
  • Main export products: oil, coffee, nickel
  • Main exporting countries: USA, Panama, China
  • Imports (2017): US $ 44,240 million
  • Main import products: machinery, transport equipment, chemical products
  • Main importing countries: USA, China, Mexico
  • Railway network (2015): 2 140 km

Colombia’s western part is penetrated by the Andes with high, snow-capped peaks and cool plateaus, while the upper, warm swamps of the upper Amazon and Orinoco rivers fill its eastern and southeastern parts. Colombia is the only country in South America that has longer coastal distances along both the Pacific and the Caribbean.

The current constitution was adopted in 1991, and it defines Colombia as a federal republic. The president, who is both head of state and government with far-reaching powers, is elected for a four-year term.

Agriculture is the most important industry with coffee as the dominant crop, but the industry and the service sector have developed strongly. The country has large natural resources, including oil and coal. More recently, oil, coal and nickel have been the backbone of the country’s exports, which has meant that the country has been vulnerable to fluctuating world market prices. Illegal drug trafficking has long been a problem for the country.

Colombia Map

Colombia Map

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