Saudi Arabia, also known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is on the
Arabian Peninsula. "Saudi Arabia" means "happiness" in Arabic.
Covering an area of 2.25 million square kilometers, its population
is 22.67 million, mostly Arabs. Islam is the state religion. Arabic
is the official language, and English is also spoken. The currency
is the rial. Riyadh (Ar-Riyad) is the capital.
The flag of Saudi Arabia is green. At the top, in the center, are
the Arabic words, "all non-owners, only Allah, Muhammad is Allah's
messenger." Painted underneath is the master sword, a symbol of
jihad and self-defense.
In the 7th century, Islam's founder, Mohammed, established a number
of successors to Bodi Guo, which, in its eighth-century heyday,
included territory across three continents, Europe, Asia, and
Africa. In the 11th century, Arabia began to decline, and by the
16th century, the region became a province of the Turkish Ottoman
Empire. In the 19th century, the British State invaded. In 1924,
Sheikh Ibn Chi took over and merged Saudi with Hejaz, and claimed
himself King the following year. After 50 years of expeditions, Ibn
- Saudi Arabia finally unified the Arabian Peninsula. On September
25, 1952,the establishment of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was
Saudi terrain gets higher from west to east. The western side is the
Asir Plateau, with the central part a plateau, the eastern part
plains, and the western part of the country is low-lying along the
Red Sea coast. Desert makes up 50% of the total land area, and the
largest desert is the desert southeast of the Rub al Khali. There is
no perennial water of rivers or lakes; it is dry valley all over.
In the summer, the coastal areas' air temperature ranges from 38
℃ to 59 ℃, with the mainland sometimes as high as 54 ℃. It is one of
the world's hottest areas, and with an annual average rainfall of
less than 200 mm, it is known as "the sun country."
Economic and Cultural Customs
For Saudi Arabia, the "oil empire," known oil reserves and export
volume rank first in the world, with its reserves accounting for 26%
of the world's total reserves, and exploitation is ranked first in
the world. Of the three super-large oil fields in the world, there
are two in Saudi Arabia, namely the and Safaniya Ghawar oil fields.
The Saudi oil industry is the main pillar of the country's economy;
oil revenues accounted for 70% of state revenues. Natural gas
accounts for 3.9% of total world reserves, fifth in the world. With
only ground-based water resources, Saudi Arabia has a total of 25
desalination plants and is the world's largest producer of
desalinated seawater. Desalinated water accounts for 46% of the
country's drinking water.
Muslims act in strict accordance with Sharia law, banning
alcohol, movies, and idolatry. When women go out in public, they
must wear a black veil from head to toe. Collective worship occurs
every Friday; the devout have to bow towards the direction of Mecca.
According to Islamic teachings, all healthy, able Muslims must
make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca during their lifetime
(believers pay respects to the Holy Land). Each year during the Kun
season, about two million Muslims from around the world gather here,
and a huge crowd slowly rotate around the Kaaba, a magnificent
Saudi Arabia is a high-welfare state. People are very rich, but
dress simply. The men wear white robes and white turbans, with black
loops hold him down; many people also like wearing a red checked
turban. Those who identify as Waichuan again wear a white robe
trimmed in black or yellow yarn.
Part of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Mount Arafat is located 40
kilometers east of the Islamic holy city of Mecca. On Mount Arafat,
worshippers collectively participate in the ceremony of the
pilgrimage. A remote places nomrally, during the Hajj, pilgrims
arrive on the evening of December 8th from Mecca to spend the night
here in a large tent. In Islam, this is called the "vigil." Mount
Arafat becomes a tent city of a million people that never sleeps. On
December 9th, millions of pilgrims clad in white, unsewn garments,
brave the heat of the tent all day chant chanting verses of the
Koran and silently praying. At night, teams of pilgrims embark on
the Mina, where they return Mount Arafat to its quiet desert state.
Grand Mosque in Mecca
Also known as the Sacred Mosque, it is the world's most famous
Islamic Holy Temple. Located in the city center of Mecca, the mosque
covers an area of 160,000 square meters and can accommodate 300,000
Muslims worshipping. The 25 gates, seven 92-meter minarets, and 24
meters of the wall connecting the door and the minaret are carved.
Slightly south of the central square is the Temple Kaaba (Kaaba
means the house of God). In December each year, Muslim pilgrims from
around the world come to Mecca to be in the room they day when the
tour transfer .